HIV-1


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HIV-1

Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus-1.

HIV-1

AIDS-related virus–ARV, Human immunodeficiency virus, human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, type III–HTLV-III, lymphadenopathy-associated virus–LAV The retrovirus intimately linked to AIDS Skin in HIV See HIV dermatopathy Diagnosis PCR, ELISA to screen for anti-HIV IgM antibodies; ELISA-positive sera is subjected to Western immunoblot hybridization. See HIV tests Disinfection 750 ppm/1:10 dilution for 40 mins, formaldehyde–2% for 10 hrs; high laundry temps–90% ↓ in viable HIV–eg, 25 mins at 71ºC or 10 mins at 80ºC may be effective; low temperature washing without bleach does not remove HIV– Infections HIV-positivity worsens responses to other infections; T-cell response to infections in HIV-positive subjects may trigger multiplication of dormant HIV; AIDS Pts have an ↑ susceptibility to disseminated vaccinia after immunization, neurosyphilis, TB, herpes and other infections that respond to standard therapy; several viruses may co-infect with HIV-1–eg, herpesvirus, HHV-6, papovavirus, adenovirus and HTLV-I Long term survivors Nonprogressive HIV-1 infection, see there Precautions See Universal blood & body fluid precautions Seroprevalence in Africa Sub-Saharan Africa ♂ 1:40 are infected; ♀ 1:40, regionally up to 1:5; North America ♂ 1:75; ♀ 1:700 Seroprevalence, US 650, 000-1, 400, 000–0. 2-0.5% of the population is infected with HIV-1, ranging from 0.1% in rural regions with low 'risk' activities to 7.8% in urban populations; in low prevalence regions, HIV-1 positivity is more common in ♂; in high prevalence regions, the ♂:♀ratio is 2.9:1; 20% of ♂ in such regions are HIV-positive; seropositivity is up to 9-fold greater in those refusing to be tested Army (US) personnel Seroconversion rate in soldiers is 0.29/1000 person-yrs Child-bearing women US inner city 8.0/1000, urban–not inner-city and suburban 2.5/1000 suburban and rural 0.9/1000; 4.5-5.8/1000 in NY, New Jersey, Washington DC and Florida and 1.5/1000 in the US; rate of HIV transmission to the child is 30% ER patients–US, 1987 3% of all and 16% of 25-34 yr-old ER Pts are HIV positive, 80% of whom were unsuspected Health care workers–HCW HIV positivity in HCW reflects HIV positivity in the general population; in the US, < 100 HCW without other known risk behaviors have seroconverted; seroconversion after needle or mucosal exposure to HIV-infected Pts is ± 0.3%; dentists–see Acer cluster  Management Multiagent antiretroviral therapy–eg, protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors Newborns Rural NY 0. 16%+, NY City 1.25%+ Prisoners Prevalence 2-7.6%, ♂; 2.5-14.7%, ♀ Sexually active adults 5% of those with STD are HIV-1 positive, especially if Hx of syphilis or genital herpes  Transmissible fluids/tissues Blood, tissues, breast milk are recognized HIV 'vectors'; casual household contacts, feces, skin, tears and urine are not known to transmit HIV; saliva inhibits the ability of HIV to infect lymphocytes. See Bergalis Transmission Worldwide, most transmission is by heterosexual intercourse. See AIDS, HIV testing, Mosquito connection, Monkey connection, Western blot, Window period, Zagury, Zidovudine.

HIV-1

Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

HIV-1,

n the abbreviation for
human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which is widely recognized as the causal agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV-1 is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
References in periodicals archive ?
Approved HIV test systems, on the other hand, have undergone extensive study and review by the manufacturer of the product to ensure that they work, that the results they provide are specific, meaning that they will accurately detect antibodies to the HIV-1 virus that causes AIDS, and that they are sensitive, meaning that they can detect even low levels of these antibodies, indicating that someone has been exposed to HIV-1.
Even though HIV-2 replicates more slowly in the body than HIV-1 does, an HIV-2 infection can gradually provoke strong immune activation that appears to be just as damaging long-term as the immune activation triggered by HIV-1, Grossman says.
To identify the primary HIV-1 strains in the current epidemic, we collected blood specimens from HIV-1-infected inmates in 3 detention centers (1 each located in the northern, central and southern regions of Taiwan).
The sensitivity in testing 534 HIV-1 positive specimens and 169 HIV-2 positive specimens for HIV-1 and HIV-2 was 100 percent.
The FDA approves a supplement to the Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test, extending the lower limit of viral load quantification from 400 to 50 copies/mL.
Approved September 17, 1998 for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, in combination with other antiretroviral agent(s).
In clinical trials involving 8,714 specimens at 11 test sites, the SUDS HIV-1 Test was shown to have a sensitivity of 99.
Recombinant viruses and early global HIV-1 epidemic.
Our lab is interested in understanding how HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120) may activate intraeellular signals through these receptors in primary human macrophages, and how these responses may contribute to pathogenesis.
Highly active antiretroviral treatment initiated early in the course of symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection: results of the ANRS 053 trial.
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell lymphotropic viruses among leprosy patients and contacts: Correlation between HIV-1 cross reactivity and antibodies to lipoamhinomanuan.