AIDS dementia complex

(redirected from HIV dementia)

AIDS de·men·ti·a com·plex (ADC),

a subacute or chronic HIV-1 encephalitis, the most common neurologic complication in the later stages of HIV infection; manifested clinically as a progressive dementia, accompanied by motor abnormalities.

AIDS Dementia Complex

An insidious metabolic encephalopathy affecting up to two-thirds of AIDS patients, which is triggered by HIV and driven by neurotoxins secreted by macrophages and microglia. It may be complicated by infections—e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, CMV, or lymphomas.
Clinical findings Poor concentration, loss of memory, incoordination, dysgraphia, lethargy, apathy.
Note: 30% of asymptomatic HIV-positive subjects have EEG abnormalities or progressive cognitive, motor, or behavioural dysfunction.

AIDS dementia complex

AIDS An insidious–30% of asymptomatic HIV-positive subjects have EEG abnormalities, progressive cognitive, motor, behavioral dysfunction, which affects up to 2⁄3 of AIDS Pts; ADC may be complicated by infections–eg, Toxoplasma gondii, CMV, lymphomas Clinical Inability to concentrate, loss of memory, gait incoordination, dysgraphia, slowing of psychomotor functions and eventually, apathy Pathology Degeneration of subcortical white matter and deep gray matter, white matter vacuolization in the lateral and posterior columns of the spinal cord

AIDS dementia complex

A feature of certain cases of AIDS in which there is so much direct damage to brain cells by HIV that DEMENTIA occurs. The condition occurs in some 20% of people with untreated AIDS in the late stages. The drug ZIDOVUDINE appears to be capable of greatly reducing the likelihood of this effect. Other anti-AIDS drugs may be less useful in preventing ADC.

AIDS dementia complex

A type of brain dysfunction caused by HIV infection that causes difficulty thinking, confusion, and loss of muscular coordination.
Mentioned in: AIDS

AIDS de·men·ti·a com·plex

(ADC) (ādz dĕ-menshē-ă kompleks)
Subacute or chronic HIV-1 encephalitis, the most common neurologic complication in the later stages of HIV infection.
References in periodicals archive ?
"The International HIV Dementia Scale: a new rapid screening test for HIV dementia." AIDS 2005; 19(13): 1367-74.
The neurocognitive assessment was performed using the following instruments: Grooved Pegboard Test, Color Trails Test (CTT) parts 1 and 2, Finger Tapping Test, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS).
In an attempt to solve this problem, a screening instrument known as the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) (9) was created to identify neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV-positive patients.
During early stages of immune dysfunction, manifestations like Bell's palsy and GBS are common, but during late stages more severe disorders like cryptococcal meningitis, TB meningitis, CMV encephalitis, HIV dementia and the polyradiculopathy appears.
Li et al., "Oxidative stress and therapeutic approaches in HIV dementia," Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol.
Subsequent sections consider general aspects, nutritional factors, and specific conditions, including various diets, dehydration, oral health, fruit and vegetable consumption, medical foods, eating behavior, obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, psycho-functional status, ketosis, leptin, antioxidant status, and HIV dementia; the role of micronutrients, lipids, amino acids, proteins, alcohol, nutraceuticals, and dietary components; and practical issues and nutritional health, including swallowing, mealtime challenges, neuropsychological assessment, ethics and decision making, and palliative care.
cleaning, cooking, shopping, money management, work tasks or driving) IHDS = International HIV Dementia Scale; MMSE = mini mental state examination; HDS = HIV dementia scale; MoCA = Montreal Cognitive Assessment; CNS = central nervous system; OI = opportunistic infection; HIV-D = HIV-dementia; MND = mild neurocognitive disorder; NP = neuropsychological; HCWs = healthcare workers; CT = computed tomography.
To assess HAD, the Modified HIV Dementia Scale (Davis, Skolasky, Seines, Burgess, & McArthur, 2002) and the International HIV Dementia Scale (Sacktor et al., 2005) are effective tools with showed reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity, which allow for the screening of cognitive changes and establish a baseline assessment.
(23.) International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), Pallipedia, http://pallipedia.
The clinical syndromes identified include sensory neuropathy, myelopathy, HIV dementia, and cognitive/motor disorder.
Magnetic resonance imaging measurement of gray matter volume reductions in HIV dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry 152:987-994, 1995.
"We started with the opposite hypothesis - that heroin was going to destroy neurons in the brain and lead to HIV dementia."The researchers conducted the study because they knew that a number of HIV-positive people are also heroin abusers, and because of that, some are at high risk of developing neurological complications from the infection.