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The majority of egg cases identified for this study were encountered near documented skate nursery areas, particularly the nursery areas designated as HAPC. Egg case densities at these sites can be as high as 800,000 eggs/[km.sup.2] (Hoff, 2008, 2010), and nursery areas cover several square kilometers of seafloor.
The overall number of egg cases reported by observers, and the locations of those encounters, indicate that fishing gear is being deployed in and around skate nursery areas, including those designated as HAPC. Clearly, skate embryos of viable egg cases caught in fishing gear are exposed to increased mortality rates.
Since the AGC and HAPC systems contain many mechanical and electrical components that interact in a complex manner, the resulting model can be quite complex.
The HAPC concentrator and exposure system enabled simultaneous monitoring of real-time exposures and lung function.
Seamounts are considered to be HAPC areas because they may be unique ecosystems with endemic stocks or species (De Forges et al., 2000), including corals (Tsao and Morgan, 2005), and thus particularly vulnerable to human activities such as fishing.
Each grouper pit was defined and characterized by the following 4 factors: year, predator presence or absence, region, and HAPC. Year indicated the year the grouper pit was sampled: 2012-2015 (Fig.
Considering that the HAPC is located in an urban environment approximately 75 m from a major roadway and that road dust can contribute significantly to fine particle mass (Schauer et al.
Animal exposures were performed using the HAPC as previously described (8,10,11).
Moreover, because large invertebrates, such as sponges and corals, enhance the diversity and structural component of fish habitat and are vulnerable to impacts by at least some fisheries, they also may signify habitat areas of particular concern (HAPC) and as such would be protected under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Freese, 2001; Etnoyer and Morgan (1)).
We used the Harvard Ambient Particle Concentrator (HAPC) to concentrate ambient air particles for subsequent aerosol exposure of animals (Sioutas et al.
Pulmonary inflammatory and hematologic responses of canines were studied after exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) using the Harvard ambient particle concentrator (HAPC).