HAND2

HAND2

A gene on chromosome 4q33 that encodes a DNA-binding basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor which plays an essential role in cardiac morphogenesis: it works in complement with HAND1 in the formation of the right ventricle and of the aortic arch arteries. HAND2 is required for vascular development and regulation of angiogenesis, possibly by a VEGF signalling pathway; it also plays a key role in limb development, particularly in the establishment of anterior-posterior polarisation, acting as an upstream regulator of sonic hedgehog (Shh) induction in the limb bud. It is involved in the development of branchial arches and head and neck structures. HAND2 dimerises with TCF3 gene products E12 and E47 and hairy-related transcription factors (HAND2, HEY1, HEY2 and HEYL), and it interacts with MDFIC. It is expressed in the heart.
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There are two groups of muscles present in human hand called intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, which extend to digits of each hand2. Anatomically when we talk about the origin and insertion of these muscles, specifically the bellies of intrinsic muscles are placed in hand and bellies of extrinsic muscles are present in the forearm.
Srivastava, "Serum response factor regulates a muscle-specific microRNA that targets Hand2 during cardiogenesis," Nature, vol.
One of the first TFs added to GMT was the bHLH TF HAND2 (referred to as GMHT).
[69] have demonstrated a new type of heterogeneity in neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumors by identifying three types of cells: sympathetic noradrenergic cells that are characterized by expression of PHOX2B, HAND2, and GATA3 transcription factors; neural crest cell-like (NCC-like) cells that express FOS and JUN family members but do not express PHOX2B and noradrenergic markers; and a mixed type of cells.
P4 induces the expression of heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 2 (HAND2) in the sub-epithelial stroma before embryo implantation (D4) (6).
Li et al., "Role of DNA methylation and epigenetic silencing of HAND2 in endometrial cancer development," PLoS Medicine, vol.
As for SHED cardiac induction, only a handful of genes, namely, GATA4, HAND2, ADRB1, NPPA, PLN, SLC8A1, ACTN2, MLY2, TNNT2, MB, and CKM, were upregulated significantly (P < 0.05) at the 7th day.
In humans, mutations in 25 different homeobox transcription factors have been found in patients with congenital heart disease (McCulley and Black 2012); expression of 14 of these (Cited2, Ets1, Foxh1, Gata4, Gata6, Handl, Hand2, Hoxal, Irxl, Nkx2-5, Nkx2-6, Pitx2, and Tbx1) was disrupted by TCDD in our mouse ES cell differentiation experiments.
HAND RECOGNITION RATE BY MEASURING 18 HAND PARAMETERS Difference Number of recognized hands between hands (in pixels) Hand1 Hand2 Hand3 Hand4 150 47 60 53 56 105 19 26 22 19 75 8 13 11 8 60 2 4 1 1 30 0 1 1 1
Another interesting possibility has been recently highlighted by Song and colleagues [38], who reprogrammed cardiac fibroblasts into myocardial cells by using cardiac transcription factors (GATA4, HAND2, MEF2C, and TBX5) in mice.
Olson, Ph.D., and colleagues from UT Southwestern showed that four gene-regulatory proteins--GATA4, HAND2, MEF2C, and TBX5 (GHMT)--can convert cardiac fibroblasts into beating cardiac-like muscle cells.
Main regulatory steps of heart development are downstream events of transcription factors like NKX25, HAND1, HAND2, SRF and GATA4 (16-18).