There are two groups of muscles present in human hand called intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, which extend to digits of each hand2
. Anatomically when we talk about the origin and insertion of these muscles, specifically the bellies of intrinsic muscles are placed in hand and bellies of extrinsic muscles are present in the forearm.
Srivastava, "Serum response factor regulates a muscle-specific microRNA that targets Hand2
during cardiogenesis," Nature, vol.
One of the first TFs added to GMT was the bHLH TF HAND2
(referred to as GMHT).
 have demonstrated a new type of heterogeneity in neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumors by identifying three types of cells: sympathetic noradrenergic cells that are characterized by expression of PHOX2B, HAND2
, and GATA3 transcription factors; neural crest cell-like (NCC-like) cells that express FOS and JUN family members but do not express PHOX2B and noradrenergic markers; and a mixed type of cells.
P4 induces the expression of heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 2 (HAND2
) in the sub-epithelial stroma before embryo implantation (D4) (6).
Li et al., "Role of DNA methylation and epigenetic silencing of HAND2
in endometrial cancer development," PLoS Medicine, vol.
As for SHED cardiac induction, only a handful of genes, namely, GATA4, HAND2
, ADRB1, NPPA, PLN, SLC8A1, ACTN2, MLY2, TNNT2, MB, and CKM, were upregulated significantly (P < 0.05) at the 7th day.
In humans, mutations in 25 different homeobox transcription factors have been found in patients with congenital heart disease (McCulley and Black 2012); expression of 14 of these (Cited2, Ets1, Foxh1, Gata4, Gata6, Handl, Hand2
, Hoxal, Irxl, Nkx2-5, Nkx2-6, Pitx2, and Tbx1) was disrupted by TCDD in our mouse ES cell differentiation experiments.
HAND RECOGNITION RATE BY MEASURING 18 HAND PARAMETERS Difference Number of recognized hands between hands (in pixels) Hand1 Hand2
Hand3 Hand4 150 47 60 53 56 105 19 26 22 19 75 8 13 11 8 60 2 4 1 1 30 0 1 1 1
Another interesting possibility has been recently highlighted by Song and colleagues , who reprogrammed cardiac fibroblasts into myocardial cells by using cardiac transcription factors (GATA4, HAND2
, MEF2C, and TBX5) in mice.
Olson, Ph.D., and colleagues from UT Southwestern showed that four gene-regulatory proteins--GATA4, HAND2
, MEF2C, and TBX5 (GHMT)--can convert cardiac fibroblasts into beating cardiac-like muscle cells.
Main regulatory steps of heart development are downstream events of transcription factors like NKX25, HAND1, HAND2
, SRF and GATA4 (16-18).