HAND1

HAND1

A gene on chromosome 5q33 that encodes a DNA-binding basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor which plays an essential role in trophoblast differentiation and in cardiac morphogenesis; in adults, it may be required for ongoing expression of cardiac-specific genes. HAND1 dimerises with TCF3 gene products E12 and E47 and hairy-related transcription factors (HAND2, HEY1, HEY2 and HEYL), and it interacts with MDFIC. It is expressed in the heart.
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Briefly, Hand1 null (at e7.5-9.5) and Tbx5 null (at e9.5-10.5) mice are characterized by arrested cardiac development.
Time course qRT-PCR suggested that deletion of STAT3 resulted in decreased expression of mesodermal markers such as T-Brachyury, Mesp1, Fgf5, and Hand1 during differentiation as compared to uninduced EBs (Figure 1(c)).
There were also differences between groups in the relative abundance of transcripts related to the regulation of embryo development with CDX2, HSF1, KEAP1, and OTX2 upregulated in the 5% [O.sub.2] group (Figure 1(a)) and HAND1, MAPK1, and NFkB2 downregulated in the same group in comparison with the 20% [O.sub.2] group (Figure 1(b)).
Did the authors exclude mutations in nDNA-located genes which have been shown to cause dCMP, such as MYH7 , MYBPC3 , LMNA , TNNI3 , TNNT2 , ACTC1 , TPM1 , SCN5A , MYL2 , MYH6 , MYL3 , PLEKHM2 , HAND1 , RBM20 , FBXO32 , DES , YBPC3 , MYPN , and PRKAG2 ?[sup][2] Arguments against the m.8701A>G variant as being causative are that the variant has not been reported as pathogenic, was homoplasmic, that no biochemical defect was demonstrated neither in skeletal muscle nor in skin fibroblasts, that the heteroplasmy rate was not tested in tissues other than lymphocytes, that a maternal trait is not the only possible transmission, that no other organs except the myocardium were affected, and that the variant occurred also in a subject of the control group.
El grupo de Reamon-Buettner y Borlak, ha informado que la mayoria de las enfermedades cardiacas, son de origen somatico y estan relacionadas con mutaciones en los genes NKX2.5, TBX5, GATA4, HEY2 y HAND1 (9, 10).
The top 10 ranked TFs with higher RIF were HAND1, PTK1, NFKB1, ZIC3, STAT6, E2F1, PELP1, USF2, CBFB, SOX9, and FOXO4 (Table 2).
In order to distinguish undifferentiated cells from differentiated cells, differentiation markers GATA4 (endodermal lineage), OTX-2 (ectodermal lineage), and HAND1 (mesodermal lineage) were used.
HAND RECOGNITION RATE BY MEASURING 18 HAND PARAMETERS Difference Number of recognized hands between hands (in pixels) Hand1 Hand2 Hand3 Hand4 150 47 60 53 56 105 19 26 22 19 75 8 13 11 8 60 2 4 1 1 30 0 1 1 1
pylori infection on DNA methylation for multiple genes (HAND1, HRASLS, LOX, p16, P41ARC, and THBD) in H.
For those overrepresented among loci associated with AluYb8 methylation, there were a number of developmentally related TFBS genes (CUX1, CHX10, PAX4, PPARG, TAL1/ITF2 heterodimer, HAND1, MYOD, OCT), as well as those involved in cell processes (ACTR3B, S8), gene expression (NFE2L), lipid/sterol homeostasis (NR3C1), and immune modulation (GATA1).
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The HAND1 is another transcription factor expressed in the heart, and it is characterized by an asymmetrical pattern of expression.