The HACEK group
of organisms were previously difficult to isolate by routine blood culture methods, but with modern culture techniques these organisms are usually isolated within three to five days [20, 21].
Second, MALDI-TOF is a rapid and accurate tool for the identification of many microorganisms including HACEK group
. Ampicillin/sulbactam is the agent-of-choice especially in the treatment of HACEK group
(2) Rare causes of infective endocarditis are Gram-negative organisms, including the HACEK group: Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter (previously Actinobacillus) species, Cardiobacterium hominus, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species.
Favorable prognosis of patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by gram-negative bacilli of the HACEK group. Am J Med.
Various bacilli, the HACEK group of organisms (Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella spp.) and fungi are rare.
Definition of terms used in the Duke criteria Major criteria Blood culture positive for IE Typical micro-organism consistent with IE from two separate blood cultures Viridians streptococci, Streptococcus gallolyticus, HACEK group, S.
The current standard for automated blood culture testing as recommended by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) is a five-day incubation period (CAP checklist, 2014); and even for the more fastidious so-called HACEK group
of organisms (e.g., Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella) and Brucella spp., incubation beyond the five-day period is seldom required.
Antibiotic treatment may be sufficient in native valve endocarditis and of late onset PVE due to sensitive organism like streptococci or HACEK group
in the absence of valvular complication.
Here we present a rare case of CIED associated endocarditis caused by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a member of the HACEK group
Kingella kingae, a short Gram negative bacillus, is best known for being a constituent of the HACEK group
of organisms; i.e.
aphrophilus, 1 Haemophilus sp., 1 Kingella kingae, and 1 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were identified among the HACEK group
(Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella.).
Thus, the isolation of fastidious microorganisms including Abiotrophia (new genus Granulicatella) and the HACEK group
, has improved dramatically, and organisms frequently missed with the use of earlier blood culture techniques are now recognized.