: induction of shellfish poisoning in chicks.
Ocean color imagery:What is the minimum detection level for Gymnodinium breve
Monitoring brevetoxins during a Gymnodinium breve
red tide: comparison of sodium channel specific cytotoxicity assay and mouse bioassay for determination of neurotoxic shellfish toxins in shell-fish extracts.
Red tides are caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve
and Ptychodiscus brevis), which produces a series of polycyclic ethers called brevetoxins (PbTx) (Davis 1948; Lin et al.
Other toxins that have been proven to be deactivated by ozone treatment are Clostridium botulinum (botulism) and Gymnodinium breve
that is one of the red tide toxins (9).
Responses of Gymnodinium breve
Davis to natural waters of diverse origin.
We traced the spatial and temporal extent of a Gymnodinium breve
bloom off of the Florida panhandle from August through October 1999 using a time series of inherent optical properties (spectral absorption and back-scattering) and chlorophyll concentration derived from SeaWiFS imagery.
Blooms of another toxic species, Gymnodinium breve
, have been implicated in the deaths of humpback whales in 1987 and Florida manatees in 1982 and 1996.
The blooming dinoflagellate (Gymnodinium breve
) was a species native to the Gulf of Mexico but new to the Atlantic, carried by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.
Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve
and Ptychodiscus brevis) and related species are dinoflagellates that can form HABs known as "Florida red tides." Arrival of these HABs, often more green, brown, or dark-colored than red, is an annual event in the Gulf of Mexico, and these blooms have been observed as far north as North Carolina.
En estudios anteriores Gomez-Aguirre (1997) menciona a Gymnodinium breve
= (Ptychodiscus brevis) como habitante permanente de la laguna y senala un florecimiento de Pyrodinium bahamense en el estero; mientras que, Ochoa (1978) y Ochoa y Ramirez (1981) reportan a Ceratium pentagonum (que tal vez corresponde a Ceratium furca var.
Metabolism and Toxinology of Florida's Red Tide Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve