where I: test ingredient; Td: test diet; Ref: reference diet; [N.sub.Ref]: nutrient (%) or gross energy
(kJ [g.sup.-1]) in reference diet; [N.sub.I]: nutrient (%) or gross energy
(kJ [g.sup.-1]) in test ingredient.
The average loss of energy in the form of methane, defined by the percentage of enteric methane produced as a function of gross energy
intake, was 6.1%, a value lower than the 6.5 to 7.5% predicted by the IPCC (2006) for cattle raised under tropical conditions.
where D = % nutrient (or kJ/g gross energy
) of diet; F = % nutrient (or kJ/g gross energy
) of feces; Di = % indigestible indicator (AIA) of diet; and Fi = % indigestible indicator (AIA) of feces.
To estimate the quality of winter diets, we calculated the sum of products of forage-quality values (percent crude protein, %CP; percent in vitro dry-matter digestibility, %IVDMD; and gross energy
, GE) of individual forage types and their relative composition in diets.
was calculated by oxygen bomb calorimeter and Crude lipid by extraction with petroleum ether for 12 h in a Soxhlet extractor (AOAC, 2005).
A basal diet was formulated to contain 32% crude protein and 16, 891 J [g.sup.-1], gross energy
based on feed stuff values reported by Tamaru and Ako (1999).
was calculated based on the formula by Eknayake et al.
The firm cited the good performance of subsidiary Sem-Calaca Power Corp.'s 600-megawatt power plant in Batangas, which made a record high gross energy
generation of 3,959 gigawatt-hours (GWh).
battery offers a gross energy
capacity of 9.0 kWh and can be topped up with energy from any domestic power socket, from a wall box that has been designed for higher currents, or of course from public charging stations.
of the formulated diet was determined using a bomb calorimeter calibrated with benzoic acid.