From Figure 14 it is evident that the values of [absolute value of ([Z.sub.6])] for all the boundary stiffnesses increase to attain maximum value and then decrease up to grazing incidence
. The values for NS1 and TS1 are greater than the values for NS2 and TS2, respectively, that reveals the thermal relaxation time effect.
* Diffraction at grazing incidence
from surfaces, and reflectivity.
Therefore as measuring technique of choice for such a task grazing incidence
small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) was selected.
To investigate the molecular packing and inner film morphology of the deposited films, X-ray scattering measurements in grazing incidence
geometry were performed.
where [absolute value of *] denotes the magnitude of the argument, and the two reflection coefficients corresponding to the perpendicular and parallel polarizations under the grazing incidence
can be expressed as 
UCSD has demonstrated a grazing incidence
final optic mirror with high damage threshold.
GIXS (grazing incidence
x-ray scattering), EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure), and SXS (surface x-ray scattering) are useful in electrochemical studies chiefly because "you see a larger area than in STM," says Michael Toney of IBM's Almaden Research Center, San Jose.
X-ray Scattering/Spectroscopy, X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and the I14 nanoprobe facility at DLS) to provide fundamental understanding and to steer design.
X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) measurements employing Cu-K[alpha] radiation were done at three grazing incidence
angles of 0.11[degrees], 0.13[degrees], and 0.3[degrees] using a Rigaku ultima IV X-ray diffractometer ([lambda] = 1.54 [Angstrom]).
For such materials in-depth stress gradient can be analysed using of grazing incidence
geometry of diffraction [24, 25].
As will be shown, the fields remain simple in the case of grazing incidence
(see Figure 5(a)).
The response to tender should detail an instrument capable of a variety of techniques in X-ray diffraction including grazing incidence
diffraction, Powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity and small angle X-ray scattering analysis.