grayanotoxin

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Related to Grayanotoxins: Mad Honey, Honey intoxication, Mad honey disease

grayanotoxin

(grā-yan'ō-toks-in),
A toxin produced by rhododendrons.
Synonym(s): rhodotoxin

grayanotoxin

(grā′ăn′ə-tŏk′sĭn)
n.
A neurotoxin found in the nectar of certain rhododendrons and related plants, such as some laurels of the genus Kalmia, and in unpasteurized honey produced from such nectar, and causing temporary effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and irregular heartbeat if ingested.

grayanotoxin

(grā″ăn′ŭ-tŏk′sĭn) [Fr. NL grayana, species name + ″. ]
A diterpene cyclic hydrocarbon found in honey produced by bees that feed on rhododendrons. Consumption of tainted honey or rhododendrons results in nausea, vomiting, and numbness and tingling around the mouth and in the arms and legs. Weakness, loss of coordination, and heart rhythm disturbances rarely occur, and only after massive ingestion. The poisoning typically resolves on its own within 24 hr.
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Solutions in different concentrations, prepared with rhododendron honey (RH) from Duzce (West Black Sea, Turkey), were dissolved in water and given by gavage to the mice in 0.01 ml per gram ratio (Silici 2014).18 Test subjects of group 5 were given grayanotoxin-III (GTx) (Grayanotoxin, Lot 3-H1 293B-Enzo), approximately one--tenth the rate of the concentration LD50, which is 0.908 mg/kg, so a 0.01 mg/kg dose intraperitoneally (Kaplan et al., 2014; Oztasan et al., 2005).
Grayanotoxin content of honey samples from Black Sea Region of Turkey.
Grayanotoxin (mad honey) ongoing consumption after poisoning.
The clinical signs suggest that the grayanotoxins observed in plants of the genus Rhododendron act on the central and peripheral nervous systems (ONAT et al., 1991).
Site of action of grayanotoxins in mad honey in rats.
Poisoning in humans has been associated with the consumption of "mad honey", or honey containing grayanotoxin; Labrador tea; cigarettes; and various decoctions used in alternative medicine (JANSEN et al., 2012).
Is the site of action of grayanotoxin the sodium channel gating of squid axon?
Distinct site regulating grayanotoxin binding and unbinding to D4S6 of Nav1.4 sodium channel as revealed by improved estimation of toxin sensitivity.