grapheme

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grapheme

(grăf′ēm)
1. A letter of an alphabet.
2. The smallest element in a writing system.
3. A written symbol or group of symbols used to represent a single sound.
References in periodicals archive ?
Omissions--stop placing graphemes which belong to the word (ex: galinha--galina).
Mirror reversals of graphemes (letters) were accepted as correct, unless they lead to other correct graphemes (e.
It appears that once the programs moved from basic letter sound correspondence, included at the kindergarten level, to letter combinations in first grade, the production, manipulation and identification of graphemes declined.
In regular orthographies, the pronunciation of each word clearly and unambiguously reflects its spelling (Ellis, 1995) by transposing each grapheme (consisting of one or two letters) to a phoneme (speech sound) using rules of correspondence (Nilsen & Bourassa, 2008).
In pointed Arabic orthography the grapheme-phoneme association is almost entirely one-to-one (Azzam, 1989), hence translating phonemes to graphemes should not pose any major difficulty.
6) As noted by Acri (2011b:xv, note 4), 'It is likely that the two graphemes represented in Old Javanese one and the same (velar nasal) phoneme, a fact that can be inferred from the 'reinforcement' of the m into mn in intervocalic position, and also from the outcome of m as n in intervocalic position (e.
That is, reading strategies, based on usage of larger units than a grapheme, lead to a visual, more automated and lexical reading (Ehri, 2005).
As opposed to previous studies, which usually attempt to refute the traditional interpretation put on the use of double consonants in The Ormulum, and attempt to advance an alternative explanation for the abnormally frequent use of <CC> digraphs, the current study primarily focuses on the standard view, which assumes that the scribe of MS Junius 1 applied double consonant graphemes to indicate vowel shortness.
Un total de 57 graphemes, 415 mots decodables et 98 mots a globaliser est presente dans le cadre des activites realisees avec ces grilles.
According to Vork (1972 : 14), "a word-initial [invariably short] plosive in native Estonian words and in old loanwords is regularly written using the graphemes p, t, k.