Emerging organisms, such as Granulibacter bethesdensis and other methylotrophs, occur almost exclusively in CGD patients (3,4).
Genome sequence analysis of the emerging human pathogenic acetic acid bacterium Granulibacter bethesdensis. J Bacteriol.
Recurrent Granulibacter bethesdensis infections and chronic granulomatous disease.
Innate immunity against Granulibacter bethesdensis, an emerging gram-negative bacterial pathogen.
Persistence of the bacterial pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis in chronic granulomatous disease monocytes and macrophages lacking a functional NADPH oxidase.
Classically considered to be cellular beings that can survive and multiply without the need of host cells, bacteria have also been shown to display phenotypes leading to internalization into human cells, as is the case with Granulibacter bethesdensis
in monocytes and macrophages, (3) Streptococcus pneumoniae in erythrocytes, (4) Staphylococcus aureus in epithelial or endothelial cells, (5,6) or Escherichia coli in urothelial cells.
Further reports include a description of Granulibacter bethesdensis
as a cause of lymphadenitis in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (4), isolation of Gluconobacter spp.
From these 12 infections, we have isolated the methylotrophs Granulibacter bethesdensis, Acidomonas methanolica, and Methylobacterium lusitanum.
Innate immunity against Granulibacter bethesdensis: an emerging gram-negative bacterial pathogen.
Serologic reactivity to the emerging pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis. J Infect Dis.
is an emerging pathogen in patients with CGD that causes fever and necrotizing lymphadenitis.
Three species have been reported as emerging pathogens in humans: Asaia bogorensis (in a case of peritonitis in a patient with a peritoneal dialysis catheter ); Granulibacter bethesdensis
(in 3 cases of lymphadenitis associated with chronic granulomatous disease ); and Acetobacter cibinongensis (a recent case of bacteremia in a patient receiving chronic hemodialysis for end-stage renal failure ).