Our findings support the use of FA-BCID as an antimicrobial stewardship tool, even more so with Gram positive
The antimicrobial potential of eight novel disperse dyes was assessed against three (03) different Gram Positive
bacterial cultures (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and eight (08) different Gram Negative bacterial cultures (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and S.
Most of the Gram positive
organisms showed oxacillin resistance.
Mean duration of ICTD was significantly higher in Gram negative empyema group (39.5 days) compared to 17 days in Gram positive
All Gram positive
isolates were sensitive to vancomycin in our study, a fact also supported by other studies.9,23,29,36 More than half of S aureus isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; similar results were reported in two Iranian studies.9,21 Majority of E coli isolates were resistant to cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and clavulanic acid in our study, similar to some other studies.5,7,9,21,35
Surveillance of Gram positive
cocci infections and drug resistance.
We found that the majority of patients in our study (65%) revealed gram positives
, while only 31% revealed gram negatives.
Experts note that "only thick walled organisms can be Gram-positive because the wall acts as a permeability barrier restricting diffusion of the crystal violet:mordant complex."  The peptidoglycan layer in Gram positives
is, on average, 10-15 times thicker than that in Gram negatives.
Out of 78 bacterial isolate, 31(39.74%) were gram positive
cocci and 47(60.25%) were gram negative bacilli.
In an other study metal salts, FeSO4, CuSO4, MnO2 (4.8mMol) has been used against wide range of Gram positive
and Gram negative bacteria .
Results: The analysis of the culture showed that 41% were cultured positive with gram positive
bacteria Staphylococcus aureus 52.5% and Staphylococcus epidermidis 30.1% and Micrococci 8.3%.