invertebrates, the sex ratio (male:female) is usually very close to 1:1 (Olive, 2002), as in echinoids, similar as observed here in for L.
Since the terms "sex inversion" and "sex reversal" frequently appear interchangeably in the literature, we considered it necessary to reexamine this topic in the light of sex manipulation in hermaphroditic species: initially, Nakamura & Takahashi (1973) described sex reversal for gonochoristic
species as the time when fish gonads are sexually undifferentiated but are susceptible to the action of exogenous steroids.
Hybridization between parthenogenetic lizards (Aspidoscelis neomexicana) and gonochoristic
lizards (Aspidoscelis sexlineata viridis) in New Mexico: ecological, morphological, cytological, and molecular context.
Because neither of the widespread gonochoristic
whiptail species (i.e., A.
For example, D'Anna & Sommer (2011) provided compelling evidence that the gonochoristic
Pristionchus uniformis Fedorko & Stanuszek is a European native scarab associate that arrived in North America and expanded its host range to scarabs there and possibly to the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) belonging to an entirely different beetle family (Chrysomelidae).
Although the majority of threadfin species are apparently protandrous hermaphrodites, a few are gonochoristic
(Dentzau and Chittenden Jr, 1990).
Lutjanids are considered gonochoristic
, achieving sexual maturity with 40 to 50% of the maximum length and fecundity values are high (Grimes 1987).
Recently, proposals for a classification system of gonad development in both gonochoristic
and hermaphroditic fishes have been made (e.g., Brown-Peterson 2006; Barbieri et al.
Intersex has been reported in a wide variety of gonochoristic
species of wild freshwater and marine fish worldwide (Allen et al.
As a consequence, parthenogens would have a competitive advantage over sexuals, in analogy to the "cost of males" (Maynard Smith 1978) in gonochoristic
Rockfishes are gonochoristic
, with internal fertilization.
It has recently been described as gonochoristic
in the wild and that some juveniles pass through a juvenile bisexual immature phase of gonad development (Erisman et al., 2008) but sexual transition was found in the wild on 2011 (Estrada-Godinez et al., 2011) as well as in captivity (Kiewek et al., 2010).