On the other hand, a similar smooth correlation between older (or more consolidated) structures and high S-velocity values has been found (at this depth range) for the continents: South America (Corchete, 2012), Antarctica (Corchete, 2013a) and Africa (Corchete, 2013b), which were part of the same super-continent Gondwanaland
. This new and very interesting feature proves again that it is possible the precise reconstruction of old super-continents (now fragmented), comparing the high and low velocity areas present in the modern continents.
Tewari, "Gondwana master basin of Peninsular India between Tethys and the interior of the Gondwanaland
Province of Pangea," Geological Society of America Memoirs, vol.
The isolation of this ancient fragment of Gondwanaland
having been broken, these Lapita colonists among other effects had a serious impact on the endemic biota, including the rapid extinction of giant Sylviornis birds, land tortoises, and other bizarre forms.
When Australia broke away from Gondwanaland
in the Cretaceous period, more than 110 million years ago, the centre of the continent was covered by a vast inland sea.
Some 200 million years ago Antarctica was joined to South America, Africa, India and Australia in a single large continent called Gondwanaland
. There was no ice sheet and trees and large animals flourished.
Meantime development of the cruzi clade is thus suggested to have initiated prior to splitting up the southern continent Gondwanaland
in the cenozoic era (Briones et al.
About 200 million years ago, Pangaea (super continent) broke into two new continents, Laurasia existing as a part of the split, in the late Mesozoic era and Gondwanaland
The current theory poses that the ostrich's ancestor rafted on India when the supercontintent Gondwanaland
(1993): Paleomagnetism of the Brewer Conglomerate in central Australia, and fact movement of Gondwanaland
during the Late Devonian.
It is known that the Antarctic continental shelf is holding rich natural resources (surveys have proven that it has been part of the super-continent Gondwanaland
that back in the Palaeozoic era consisted of South America, Africa and Australia).
WHEN YOU STAND QUIETLY in central Tanzania, the idea of Gondwanaland
makes a lot of sense: you might easily be in parts of remote Australia.
This species-group occurs in the central Drakensberg mountain region, extending through the northern part of Lesotho, its surrounding area stretching to KwaZulu-Natal and neighbouring parts of the Free State, within Gondwanaland
. The formation of the Drakensberg mountains started with the volcanic activity at the beginning of the breakup of Gondwana some 180-190 million years ago (Duncan & Marsh 2006; Watkeys 2006).