(16,17) In this scenario, as well as in cases where AFP is not performed, the use of additional hepatocellular antigens, such as hepatocyte-paraffin 1 and glypican
3, is usually informative (Figure 1, F).
Results of immunohistochemistry staining were: pan-cytokeratin (+), protein 63 (P63) (+), Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) (+), CD 99 (+), alpha-fetoprotein (+), glypican
(+), vimentin (+), Tiroid transkripsiyon faktor-1 (TTF-1) (-), napsin-A (-), Cluster of Differantiation 30 (CD 30) (-), cytokeratin 20 (-), cytokeratin 20 (-), Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) (-), Transducin-like enhancer protein 1 (TLE1) (-), and Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) (-).
GPC3 is a 60 kDa cell-surface protein which is one of the 6 members of glypican
GPC3 is a member of glypican
family of heparansulphate proteoglycans.
Adhesion receptor families such as integrins, syndecan, glypican
membrane proteoglycans, and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) are present in sponges and throughout the Metazoa [12-15].
Bach et al., "A targeted functional RNA interference screen uncovers glypican
5 as an entry factor for hepatitis B and D viruses," Hepatology, vol.
Immunostaining for glypican
3 (GPC3), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), and glutamine synthetase and/or gene expression (GPC3, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 [LYVE1], and survivin) are recommended to differentiate high-grade dysplastic nodules from early HCC.
Liver regeneration- as well as liver-specific genes (hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), glypican
3 (GPC3), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF-4a), and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)) relative mRNA expression levels were determined by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), by using the [2.sup.-[DELTA][DELTA]CT] method, on LightCycler[R] 480 System (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Germany), using Maxima[R] SYBR Green/ROX kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, DE, USA).
Fukayama, "Fetal type gastric carcinoma and its markers, SALL4, glypican
3 and AFP," Stomach and Intestine(Tokyo), vol.
Diagnostic value of HSP70, glypican
3, and glutamine synthetase in hepatocellular nodules in cirrhosis.
Specifically, HS and its protein-bound forms (HS proteoglycans such as syndecan, glypican
, and perlecan)--the most common constituents on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix (ECM)--play an important role in cutaneous cell proliferation, migration, communication, and activation, as well as collagen fiber development, basement membrane regeneration, granulation tissue formation, and cell adhesion related to wound healing.
Mann, "Hox control of morphogen mobility and organ development through regulation of glypican
expression," Development, vol.