Glycyrrhiza glabra


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licorice

(lik-e-rish) ,

Glycyrrhiza glabra

(trade name),

deglycyrrhized licorice (DGL)

(trade name),

sweet root

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antiulcer agents
Dyspepsia.

Action

Licorice blocks the metabolism of prostaglandins E and F2 alpha and may accelerate peptic ulcer healing. Licorice root also has antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, laxative and soothing properties.

Therapeutic effects

Improved symptoms of dyspepsia.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Unknown.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Unknown.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile

ONSETPEAKDURATION
POunknownunknownunknown

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity.Pregnancy and lactation.
Use Cautiously in: Congestive heart failure.Hypertension.Renal disease.Hypokalemia.Consumption of 30 grams/day or more for several weeks can cause severe adverse events.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • headache
  • lethargy

Cardiovascular

  • arrhythmias
  • hypertension

Endocrinologic

  • pseudohyperaldosteronism
  • hyperparathyroidism
  • decreased serum testosterone

Fluid and Electrolyte

  • hypokalemia
  • sodium and water retention

Gastrointestinal

  • nausea
  • vomiting

Genitourinary

  • acute renal failure

Musculoskeletal

  • muscle weakness

Interactions

↑ risk of cardiotoxicity with cardiac glycosides ↓ effectiveness of antihypertensives ↑ potassium loss with potassium-depleting diuretics ↑ metabolism and ↓ levels of warfarin Licorice causes potassium depletion which may increase the risk of cardiotoxicity withcardiac glycoside-containing herbs (digitalis) Additive potassium depletion can occur with stimulant laxative herbs (senna)
Oral (Adults) Dyspepsia—1 mL three times daily (Iberogast — combination product with other herbs) for 4 weeks

Availability

Liquid extract: Tablets: Capsules:

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess GI function (bowel sounds, abdominal distention, and usual pattern of bowel function) before and periodically during therapy.
  • Monitor blood pressure and ECG periodically during prolonged therapy.
  • Lab Test Considerations: Monitor 17–hydroxyprogesterone concentrations, electrolytes, LDH, lipid profile, liver function tests, plasma renin, renal function test, and testosterone periodically during therapy.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)

Implementation

  • Oral: Administration should be limited to 4 wks.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient to take as directed.
  • Advise female patient to notify health care professional if pregnancy is planned or suspected or if breastfeeding.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Reduction in dyspepsia.

liquorice

A preparation from the root of a legume, usually Glycyrrhiza glabra, which contains asparagine, betaine, chalcones, choline, coumarins, flavonoids, glycyrrhizin, gums, isoflavonoids and saponins. Liquorice has a high content of glycyrrhizic acid—glucuronic acid + glycyrrhetinic acid—which is structurally similar to steroids, explaining its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antirheumatic effects; it is antitussive, demulcent, expectorant, laxative, sedative and reduces serum glucose and cholesterol.
 
Chinese medicine
Liquorice is used topically for abscesses and wounds, and internally for abdominal pain and spasms, alcohol and other intoxications, asthma, cholecystitis, cirrhosis, colds, coughing and wheezing, constipation, diabetes, fever, gastritis, gastric ulcers, heartburn, hepatitis, lung congestion, and sore throat.
 
Herbal medicine
In Western herbal medicine, Glycyrrhiza glabra is used topically for eczema, herpes and skin infections, and internally for arthritis, colic, constipation, cough, gastric ulcers, hepatitis and for many of the same conditions as Chinese medicine.
 
Toxicity
Excess liquorice causes mineralocorticoid excess (e.g., suppresses 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the RAA axis), with sodium and water retention, hypertension, hypokalemia and myopathy with myoglobulinuria; it should not be used in patients with glaucoma, hypertension, renal disease or pregnancy.

Sexology
Liquorice has an unsubstantiated reputation as an aphrodisiac. Its erotic power is mentioned in the Kama Sutra, and liquorice potions are recommended for “sexual vigour”. Liquorice odours are said to increase blood flow to the genitalia.
References in periodicals archive ?
Iqbal, Pakistan, Evaluation of antioxidant and Urease Inhibition Activity of Roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Pak.
The studies on Adlay hull extracts [56], Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu decoction [18], and isoliquiritigenin from Glycyrrhiza glabra [35] have shown that herbal medicines significantly decreased intracellular [Ca.sup.2+] levels in uterus compared with the controls.
Evaluation of antigenotoxic activity of isoliquiritin apioside from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
By the base of this experiment due producing a friable callus for our aim its seems that explants of Glycyrrhiza glabra on MS medium by the maximum induction rate was recorded as 96% in MS medium with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 2 mg/l 6-BA with a light compact structure but it's not a suitable for callus induction, using a hormonal dense with 1.0 mg/l NAA and 2 mg/l 6-BA by 91.6 induction rate with a Loose, spongy, friable structure its seems that by increasing the level or the dense of NAA as an auxins the potential for producing a friable callus decreases and this could shows the interaction between cytokines and auxins and the importance kind and role of this hormones' due producing a friable Loose, spongy, friable callus for a suspension culture which use in bioreactors.
The investigational substance GutGard [TM] (Batch No: RD1972) is an extract derived from roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) developed by Natural Remedies Pvt.
A prototype derived from biotechnology and natural extracts exhibit good anti hyperpigmentation performance versus Glycyrrhiza Glabra, but less than Hydroquinone, similar to Kojic acid, and with a lower erythema index.
One of the best natural cough remedies is licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra).
John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) * uva ursi or bearberry (Arctostaphlyos uva-ursi) May aggravate drugs' side effect of swollen and tender breasts: * ginseng (Panax ginseng) * rauwolfia (Rauwolfia serpentina) propranolol HCI (Inderal) Natural licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) may increase heart rate and raise blood pressure, countering drug's effects.
Glycyrrhizin (GLN), a glycoside of glycyrrhetinic acid and a plant secondary metabolite, is extracted from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, a member of the Leguminosae family.
It is essential that the adrenals are well supported at a functional level with herbal adrenal tonics such as Glycyrrhiza glabra and supported by adaptogens such as Withania somnifera.
Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn., is often referred as Indian licorice as its roots are sweet and taste very similar to that of Glycyrrhiza glabra L., popularly known as commercial licorice (Zone, 2005).