glycocalyx

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glycocalyx

 [gli″ko-kal´iks]
the glycoprotein-polysaccharide covering that surrounds many cells.

gly·co·ca·lyx

(glī'kō-kā'liks),
A PAS-positive filamentous coating on the apical surface of certain epithelial cells, composed of carbohydrate moieties of proteins that protrude from the free surface of the plasma membrane.
[glyco- + G. kalyx, husk, shell]

gly·co·ca·lyx

(glī'kō-kā'liks)
A filamentous coating on the apical surface of certain epithelial cells, composed of carbohydrate moieties of proteins that protrude from the free surface of the plasma membrane; gives positive test result to periodic acid-Schiff procedure.
[glyco- + G. kalyx, husk, shell]

glycocalyx

a mass of filaments up to 3 μm thick produced by the membrane of intestinal brush-border microvilli, consisting of acid mucopolysaccharide and GLYCOPROTEIN, and thought to be associated with the digestion of small food molecules. Other animal cells also have a glycocalyx, on their cell coat, providing a mechanism that enables cells to recognise each other, an important process in embryonic development.

mucin

Glycoprotein, rich in carbohydrates, produced by the goblet cells and the subsurface vesicles of the conjunctiva which forms the basis of the mucous layer of the precorneal film. Mucin and the secreted glycocalyx (which consists of glycoproteins) are adsorbed by the epithelium of the cornea to convert it from a hydrophobic into a wettable hydrophilic surface. A deficiency in the production of mucin leads to an abnormally short precorneal film break-up time and to desiccation of the ocular surface. In addition, the mucous layer prevents microbial invasion of the cornea. In some contact lens wearers (especially of silicone hydrogel lenses) collapsed mucin, as well as lipids and tear proteins, accumulate behind the lens and form small, discrete spheres (called mucin balls or mucin plugs). These mucin balls cause neither discomfort nor loss of vision. See precorneal film; keratoconjunctivitis sicca; break-up time test; xerophthalmia.
References in periodicals archive ?
Funke et al., "Sepsis and major abdominal surgery lead to flaking of the endothelial glycocalix," Journal of Surgical Research, vol.
genome encodes nine different ABC transporters putatively involved with sugar transport, compared to only one or two in other species of Coma-monadaceae, possibly reflecting an adaptation to life in the sugar-rich glycocalix layer of the Hydra epithelium.
(15,16) We examined the cyst lining from a patient from our institution by electron microscopy and detected many microvilli decorated with glycocalix (Figure 4) but no true cilia, which is in keeping with the newer literature.
As with any biofilm, the constituent microbes are tightly adherent to each other and to an oral substrate by means of an extracellular matrix, ie, slime layer or glycocalix, into which they are embedded.
Tarou O, Daekyung K, Tatsuya O, Kazumi M, Atsushi I, Tsuyoshi M (2000) Concanavalin A-Induced Discharge of Glycocalix of Raphidophycean Flagellates, Chattonella marina and Heterosigma akashiwo.
(1994) proposed that the mechanism of absorption enhancement was a combination of mucoadhe-sion and a loosening effect on the tension of the tight junctions through ionic interactions with negatively charged groups of glycocalix.
Zeta potential has been suggested to play an important role in particle uptake because the surface of the intestinal mucosa is negatively charged owing to the presence of glycocalix. Particles with a high positive surface charge like chitosan are usually attracted by the intestinal mucosa which helps in increasing the intestinal absorption of the encapsulated drug.