coeliac disease

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Related to Gluten intolerance: celiac disease, lactose intolerance, Gluten free diet

coeliac disease

A malabsorptive syndrome caused by hypersensitivity of intestinal mucosa to alpha-gliadin, a gluten extract composed of glutamine and proline-rich proteins that is found in wheat, barley, rye, and oats.
 
Clinical findings
Diarrhoea, copious fatty stools, abdominal distension, weight loss, haemorrhage, osteopenia, muscle atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, CNS and spinal cord demyelination (sensory loss, ataxia), amenorrhoea, infertility, oedema, petechiae, dermatitis herpetiformis (especially if HLA B27), alopecia areata. Occult bleeding occurs in half of patients.
 
Lab
Transaminases (ALT, AST) are increased in ± 40% of patients with CD, which usually normalises with a gluten-free diet; iron deficiency, anaemia due to occult bleeding.

Diagnosis
Duodenal biopsy; anti-gliadin and anti-endomysial antibodies.
 
Management
Eliminate gliadin from diet.

Prognosis
Without treatment, 10–15% develop lymphoma (e.g., immunoblastic lymphoma; less commonly, T cell lymphoma), a risk that increases with disease duration. CD predisposes to gastrointestinal lymphoma and carcinoma of the oral cavity and oesophagus; the otherwise rare small intestinal adenocarcinoma is 80-fold more common in CD.

ce·li·ac dis·ease

(sē'lē-ak di-zēz')
A disease occurring in children and adults characterized by sensitivity to gluten, with chronic inflammation and atrophy of the mucosa of the upper small intestine; manifestations include diarrhea, malabsorption, steatorrhea, and nutritional and vitamin deficiencies.
Synonym(s): gluten enteropathy, coeliac disease.

coeliac disease

An intestinal disorder caused by intolerance to the gluten proteins the gliadins, hordeins and secalins in wheat, barley and rye. The intestinal mucosa becomes infiltrated with CD8 and CD4 lymphocytes (T cells) leading to crypt hyperplasia and atrophy of the absorbing VILLI. The result is MALABSORPTION, especially of fats, with fat excretion in the stools (STEATORRHOEA). The condition is also called ‘gluten-induced enteropathy’.

ce·li·ac dis·ease

(sē'lē-ak di-zēz') [MIM*212750]
A disease occurring in children and adults characterized by sensitivity to gluten, with chronic inflammation and atrophy of the mucosa of the upper small intestine.
Synonym(s): gluten enteropathy, coeliac disease.
References in periodicals archive ?
With the increase in wheat intake around the world, gluten allergy and gluten intolerance prevalence increased," says Vinolia.
A Gluten, a protein found in some grains, such as wheat, barley, rye, and triticale, can cause gastrointestinal symptoms in people with gluten intolerance similar to those of celiac disease.
1 GLUTEN INTOLERANCE IS MUCH MORE COMMON COELIAC UK (coeliac.org.uk) says around one in 100 people in the UK has coeliac disease but only 24% of them have been diagnosed - meaning nearly half a million Britons are unaware they have it.
The main symptom of gluten intolerance is stomach bloating; a flat stomach can turn into a protruding belly within an hour of consuming gluten.
But because gluten is widely consumed in products containing wheat, rye, and barley, and because about half of whites have at least one of the two haplotypes, gluten intolerance probably depends on other environmental factors, the researchers said.
For individuals with gluten intolerance, a lifelong gluten-free diet is the only available treatment.
Vegetarians and those with gluten intolerance are welcome.
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About one out of every three people in this country suffer from some degree of gluten intolerance and/or suffer from celiac disease which necessitates them having a gluten free diet.
In the United States, the Mayo Clinic estimates that about 1 percent of Americans have celiac disease, and about 6 percent have gluten intolerance. And yet, since the glutenfree fad swept across America, approximately 29 percent of Americans are now trying to avoid gluten.
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Chapters provide a basic introduction to such products, their development requirements, and how to understand Celiac disease and gluten intolerance: something quite essential as gluten is evident in many products one wouldn't ordinarily think about.