glucocorticoid

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glucocorticoid

 [gloo″ko-kor´tĭ-koid]
any corticoid substance that increases gluconeogenesis, raising the concentration of liver glycogen and blood glucose; the group includes cortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone. The release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is initially triggered by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) elaborated by the hypothalamus. The target organ for this factor is the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, which reacts to the presence of CRH by releasing corticotropin (ACTH). ACTH, in turn, stimulates the release of the glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. (See also adrenal gland.)

The principal glucocorticoid hormone is cortisol, which regulates the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Specifically, it increases the catabolism or breakdown of protein in bone, skin, muscle, and connective tissue. Cortisol also diminishes cellular utilization of glucose and increases the output of glucose from the liver.

Because of their effects on glucose levels and fat metabolism, all the glucocorticoids are referred to as anti-insulin diabetogenic hormones. They increase the blood sugar level, raise the concentration of plasma lipids, and, when insulin secretion is insufficient, promote formation of ketone bodies, thus contributing to ketoacidosis.

Other physiologic processes within the body can occur only in the presence of or with the “permission of€” the glucocorticoids. For example, the secretion of digestive enzymes by gastric cells and the normal excitability of myocardial and central nervous system neurons require a certain level of glucocorticoids.

Glucocorticoids also promote transport of amino acids into the extracellular compartment, making them more readily available for the production of energy. In times of stress the glucocorticoids influence the effectiveness of the catecholaminesdopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. For example, the presence of cortisol is essential to norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction and other physiologic phenomena necessary for survival under stress. This particular property of cortisol demonstrates the one identifiable relationship between hormones from the adrenal cortex and those from the adrenal medulla. One of the medullary hormones is norepinephrine, which is secreted in large quantities when the gland is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress.

Another effect of cortisol is that of dampening the body's inflammatory response to invasion by foreign agents. When present in large amounts, cortisol inhibits the release of histamine and counteracts potentially destructive reactions, such as increased capillary permeability and the migration of leukocytes. Since the immune response can damage body cells as well as those of foreign agents, the antiinflammatory protective mechanisms of cortisol help preserve the integrity of body cells at the site of the inflammatory response.

glu·co·cor·ti·coid

(glū'kō-kōr'ti-koyd),
1. Any steroidlike compound capable of significantly influencing intermediary metabolism such as promotion of hepatic glycogen deposition, and of exerting a clinically useful antiinflammatory effect. Cortisol (hydrocortisone) is the most potent of the naturally occurring glucocorticoids; most semisynthetic glucocorticoids are cortisol derivatives.
2. Denoting this type of biologic activity.
3. Synonym(s): corticoid
Synonym(s): glycocorticoid

glucocorticoid

(glo͞o′kō-kôr′tĭ-koid′)
n.
Any of a group of steroid hormones, such as cortisol, that are produced by the adrenal cortex, are involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, and have anti-inflammatory properties.

glucocorticoid

Metabolism A steroid hormone that primarily affects carbohydrate metabolism and, to a lesser extent, fats and proteins Examples Cortisol–hydrocortisone, the major human glucocorticoid, cortisone; glucocorticoids are produced naturally in the adrenal cortex, less in the gonads, can be synthesized; they have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects

glu·co·cor·ti·coid

(glū'kō-kōr'ti-koyd)
1. Any steroidlike compound capable of significantly promoting hepatic glycogen deposition, influencing intermediate metabolism, and exerting a clinically useful antiinflammatory effect. Cortisol is the most potent of the naturally occurring glucocortocoids; most semisynthetic glucocortocoids are cortisol derivatives.
2. Denoting this type of biologic activity.
Synonym(s): glycocorticoid.

glucocorticoid

a steroid endocrine secretion produced by the adrenal cortex, influencing the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, e.g. cortisol (Hydrocortisone), cortico-sterone.

Glucocorticoid

Any of a group of corticosteroids (as hydrocortisone or dexamethasone) that are anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, and that are used widely in medicine (as in the alleviation of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis).

glu·co·cor·ti·coid

(glū'kō-kōr'ti-koyd)
1. Any steroidlike compound capable of significantly influencing intermediary metabolism and exerting a clinically useful antiinflammatory effect.
2. Synonym(s): corticoid.
References in periodicals archive ?
After the diagnosis was made, all patients were tested for concentrations of the analyzed markers, after which they were treated according to a single tocolytic procedure with the use of intravenous fenoterol infusion 0.05 mg/hour during 48 hours along with glucocorticosteroid therapy (2 doses of betamethasone 12 mg every 24 hours).
In all, 142 (42.9%) of 331 patients had a flare of disease activity or required glucocorticosteroid therapy during the 2-year follow-up period.
Out of the 16 positive cases, nine have been reported for steroids, four for stimulants and, in two cases, glucocorticosteroids have been found in the samples.
Glucocorticosteroids and [sz]2-adrenoceptor agonists synergize to inhibit airway smooth muscle remodeling.
Through glucocorticosteroids moderates the symptoms and improves laboratory findings, it is generally used temporarily because of its fatal risks in long-term use.
Intranasal glucocorticosteroids is recommended for the treatment of AR (seasonal/perennial) in adults and children not less than two-years-old.
High dose glucocorticosteroids such as prednisolone, which have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, are used.
In the past decades, therapeutic approaches to systemic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases have been based on the use of glucocorticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents.
Parturition can be artificially induced in ruminants in last thirty days of gestation by exogenous administration of glucocorticosteroids (Thorburn et al., 1977).
The problem is to differentiate endogenous from exogenous administrated natural glucocorticosteroids, cortisone and cortisol, as well as to identify synthetic glucocorticosteroid abuse.
A number of pharmacological treatments against allergic rhinitis exist, such as antihistamines, leukotriene receptor agonists, mast cell stabilizing agents, and glucocorticosteroids. According to the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) guidelines, intranasal glucocorticosteroids are recommended as pharmacological treatment of allergic rhinitis and should be prescribed preferable to intranasal antihistamines and oral leukotriene receptor agonists [1].