glucocorticoid

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glucocorticoid

 [gloo″ko-kor´tĭ-koid]
any corticoid substance that increases gluconeogenesis, raising the concentration of liver glycogen and blood glucose; the group includes cortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone. The release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is initially triggered by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) elaborated by the hypothalamus. The target organ for this factor is the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, which reacts to the presence of CRH by releasing corticotropin (ACTH). ACTH, in turn, stimulates the release of the glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. (See also adrenal gland.)

The principal glucocorticoid hormone is cortisol, which regulates the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Specifically, it increases the catabolism or breakdown of protein in bone, skin, muscle, and connective tissue. Cortisol also diminishes cellular utilization of glucose and increases the output of glucose from the liver.

Because of their effects on glucose levels and fat metabolism, all the glucocorticoids are referred to as anti-insulin diabetogenic hormones. They increase the blood sugar level, raise the concentration of plasma lipids, and, when insulin secretion is insufficient, promote formation of ketone bodies, thus contributing to ketoacidosis.

Other physiologic processes within the body can occur only in the presence of or with the “permission of€” the glucocorticoids. For example, the secretion of digestive enzymes by gastric cells and the normal excitability of myocardial and central nervous system neurons require a certain level of glucocorticoids.

Glucocorticoids also promote transport of amino acids into the extracellular compartment, making them more readily available for the production of energy. In times of stress the glucocorticoids influence the effectiveness of the catecholaminesdopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. For example, the presence of cortisol is essential to norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction and other physiologic phenomena necessary for survival under stress. This particular property of cortisol demonstrates the one identifiable relationship between hormones from the adrenal cortex and those from the adrenal medulla. One of the medullary hormones is norepinephrine, which is secreted in large quantities when the gland is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress.

Another effect of cortisol is that of dampening the body's inflammatory response to invasion by foreign agents. When present in large amounts, cortisol inhibits the release of histamine and counteracts potentially destructive reactions, such as increased capillary permeability and the migration of leukocytes. Since the immune response can damage body cells as well as those of foreign agents, the antiinflammatory protective mechanisms of cortisol help preserve the integrity of body cells at the site of the inflammatory response.

glu·co·cor·ti·coid

(glū'kō-kōr'ti-koyd),
1. Any steroidlike compound capable of significantly influencing intermediary metabolism such as promotion of hepatic glycogen deposition, and of exerting a clinically useful antiinflammatory effect. Cortisol (hydrocortisone) is the most potent of the naturally occurring glucocorticoids; most semisynthetic glucocorticoids are cortisol derivatives.
2. Denoting this type of biologic activity.
3. Synonym(s): corticoid
Synonym(s): glycocorticoid

glucocorticoid

(glo͞o′kō-kôr′tĭ-koid′)
n.
Any of a group of steroid hormones, such as cortisol, that are produced by the adrenal cortex, are involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, and have anti-inflammatory properties.

glucocorticoid

Metabolism A steroid hormone that primarily affects carbohydrate metabolism and, to a lesser extent, fats and proteins Examples Cortisol–hydrocortisone, the major human glucocorticoid, cortisone; glucocorticoids are produced naturally in the adrenal cortex, less in the gonads, can be synthesized; they have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects

glu·co·cor·ti·coid

(glū'kō-kōr'ti-koyd)
1. Any steroidlike compound capable of significantly promoting hepatic glycogen deposition, influencing intermediate metabolism, and exerting a clinically useful antiinflammatory effect. Cortisol is the most potent of the naturally occurring glucocortocoids; most semisynthetic glucocortocoids are cortisol derivatives.
2. Denoting this type of biologic activity.
Synonym(s): glycocorticoid.

glucocorticoid

a steroid endocrine secretion produced by the adrenal cortex, influencing the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, e.g. cortisol (Hydrocortisone), cortico-sterone.

Glucocorticoid

Any of a group of corticosteroids (as hydrocortisone or dexamethasone) that are anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, and that are used widely in medicine (as in the alleviation of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis).

glu·co·cor·ti·coid

(glū'kō-kōr'ti-koyd)
1. Any steroidlike compound capable of significantly influencing intermediary metabolism and exerting a clinically useful antiinflammatory effect.
2. Synonym(s): corticoid.
References in periodicals archive ?
Khan et al., "Glucocorticosteroid therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis," American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.
This has a very important clinical significance as it helps in choosing the proper timing of glucocorticosteroid therapy in pregnant women in order to improve the respiratory function of the newborn.
Exclusion criteria included glucocorticosteroid injections in the previous 3 months, polyneuropathy, total hip and knee replacements, low back pain, and nerve root compression syndromes.
Sometimes glucocorticosteroid secretion may be permanently increased due
Management of a conscious patient follows the basic guidelines for treatment of medical emergency with the addition of administering oxygen and glucocorticosteroid from the patient's emergency kit, if available, or from the office emergency kit, if it is included.
Additionally, 50,000 persons with severe TBI die at the scene.[4] In spite of advances in resuscitation and intensive care, prognosis remains as dismal as it was 20 years ago,[36] and mortality has remained constant at between 20-50%.[45] Glucocorticosteroids have been used in TBI for over 30 years.
Dexamethasone, a glucocorticosteroid, has been shown to decrease postoperative sore throat in patients requiring endotracheal intubation for general anaesthesia due to its anti-inflammatory effects like decreased release of vasoactive factors, diminished secretion of lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes, decreased extravasation of leukocytes to areas of injury and reduced expression of proinflammatory enzymes, such as COX-2 and Nitric Oxide Synthase.
Another factor potentially capable of growth inhibition in children and teenagers with BA is a glucocorticosteroid therapy [9].
Addisonian patients needing glucocorticosteroid replacement during pre-conception or pregnancy should use hydrocortisone instead of prednisolone or dexamethasone.
The product is a generic version of the company's Uceris, which is a glucocorticosteroid designed for the induction of remission in patients with active, mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, a form of inflammatory bowel disease.
Invasive aspergillosis occurs as a result of three factors: (1) suppression of the immune response due to debilitating disease or therapy with cytotoxic drugs or radiation therapy, (4,8,13) (2) glucocorticosteroid therapy with the resultant diminished inflammatory response and disruption of the normal flora by antimicrobial agents, (13,14) and (3) local implantation of the fungus.