Gain-of-function glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 variants alter GluA2
recycling and surface distribution in patients with autism.
In addition, NL1 KO mice showed significantly reduced expression levels of NMDA receptor subunits GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B and the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2
in synaptosomal hippocampal preparations .
Liszewska et al., "Adaptor complex 2 controls dendrite morphology via mTOR-dependent expression of GluA2
," Molecular Neurobiology, 2017
This increase resulted from enhancement of synaptic AMPARs lacking the GluA2
subunit, a change that has also been observed following LTP induction (Isaac et al.
Neuronal glutamate receptor subunits in hippocampus responded selectively to nPM inhalation: GluAl protein levels were decreased by 35% (Figure 2A), whereas GluA2
was not significantly altered (Figure 2B).
They identified four distinct conformations in an AMPA receptor bound to a GluA2
agonist (which triggers the receptor response).
In fact, PICK-1 interacts with GluA2
subunit directly and is involved in the incorporation of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors as the replacement of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors .
The researchers studied a rat glutamate receptor known as GluA2
More recent studies revealed that palmitoylation of GluA1 subunit requires its dynamic anterograde transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus, while GluA2
subunits are palmitoylated by the ER-resided DHHC2 .
It is composed of four subunits: GluA1, GluA2
, GluA3, and GluA4, which form a heterotetramer.
The primary antibodies included mouse anti-C-terminal-binding protein-2 (CtBP2) (612044; BD Biosciences, USA) at 1: 500 dilution; mouse anti-glutamate receptor 2, extracellular, clone 6C4 (GluA2
) (MAB397; Millipore, Germany) at 1: 2000 dilution; rabbit anti-NMDAR1 (GluN1) (AB9864R; Millipore, Germany) at 1: 1000 dilution; chicken anti-200 kD neurofilament heavy chain (NF) (cat.
Xu et al., "Reduced levels of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP block beta amyloid-mediated GluA1/ GluA2
receptor internalization," Journal of Neurochemistry, vol.