Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels mediate cocaine-induced GluA1
trafficking in the nucleus accumbens, a long-term adaptation dependent on ventral tegmental area Ca(v)1.3 channels.
Additionally, [beta]-AR activation increases the expression of the a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA1
, one of the four subunits of the AMPA receptor for glutamate (12).
In the GluA1
locus, 3 alleles (a, b, c) have been identified, in GluB1 6 alleles (a, b, c, d, e, k), and in Glu-D1 2 alleles (a, d) (Table 2).
As noted, E-LTP induction is dependent on the rapid trafficking of AMPA receptors containing the GluA1
subunit to the postsynaptic membrane [51, 150], and recent work has demonstrated that glutamate receptor trafficking is regulated by clock-gated signaling pathways.
Lalchandani et al., "Soluble ICAM-5, a product of activity dependent proteolysis, increases mEPSC frequency and dendritic expression of GluA1
," PLOS ONE, vol.
Lawrence, "Catalogue of alleles for the complex gene loci GluA1
, GluB1, GluD1, which code for the highmolecular-weight subunits of glutenin in hexaploid wheat," Cereal Research Communications, vol.
CaMKIIalpha knockdown decreases anxiety in the open field and low serotonin-induced upregulation of GluA1
in the basolateral amygdala.
In our results, we detected significant elevation of GluA2/ 3 expression in the hippocampus, but not GluA1
. This suggested for insertion or synthesis of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors, which might act in replacement of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors that are recruited in acute stress phases.
The diffusion constant of GluA1
drops as the subunit reaches a hyaluronan-enriched area.
While CaMKII appears to have multiple functions in synaptic plasticity, phosphorylation of GluA1
receptors to regulate their trafficking and signaling appears to be critical for LTP .
More recent studies revealed that palmitoylation of GluA1
subunit requires its dynamic anterograde transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus, while GluA2 subunits are palmitoylated by the ER-resided DHHC2 .