Variation in the realization of glottalization
in normal speakers.
At the same time people speaking deep Latgallian subdialects from the High Latvian dialect, who live in North-East Vidzeme (near the Estonian boarder) still stand out for a very strong broken syllable intonation with glottalization
. As the broken syllable intonation, contrary to the Livonian stod, can occur not only in the first stressed syllable, but in any syllable, even at the end of the last syllable, for example, kal?na:?, therefore the broken syllable intonation is heard frequently in Latvian.
The occurrence of preaspiration in the production of voiceless stops in Tuscan Italian (or in any variety of Italian) has not been reported in the literature, aside from preliminary results presented by Stevens herself (see M Stevens, J Hajek and M Absalom (2002) 'Raddoppiamento sintattico and glottalization
phenomena in Italian: a first phonetic excursus' in C.
This can be explained with the laryngeal timing of breathiness and glottalization
in these vowel nuclei.
This development has a parallel in the dialectal Indo-European loss of glottalization
after long vowels (2).
Supposedly he had in mind an alternative use of words both (a) with the rising-falling pitch combined with intensive glottalization
and (b) with prevailingly falling pitch combined with weak glottalization
It is well known that secondary articulation types, such as labialization and palatalization, as well as laryngeal modifications, such as aspiration and glottalization
, can play a contrastive role in segment inventories.
One important topic requiring further investigation is the glottal quality ("glottalization
or creak") reported by Ingham in utterance-final position as a Bedouin characteristic (p.
But since they say this is only a difference in glottalization
, tone has actually become neutralized in this dialect, and there is only an opposition between presence and absence of stod, which is a situation comparable to that in Danish.
Wetzels (1985) points out that, in derivational terms, stop epenthesis feeds the glottalization
of coda voiceless stops, although this may apply in British RP but not in American English (Gussenhoven and Jacobs 1998: 131-132).
It should be stressed that t in the sequence t-d of Amharic tammada 'harness' lost its glottalization
in Chaha damada through a process of assimilation, t-d becoming d-d.
Woolard (1989) argues that the overuse of glottalization
by the last speakers of Xinca in Guatemala is due to contact with Spanish: the use of this marked feature in Xinca is motivated by the fact that this form does NOT appear in Spanish and glottalization
is therefore a symbolic act of differentiation for Xinca speakers.