To prevent the manifold from losing any pressure, the engineers at Agru opted for a solution that involved an HV liner pipe with glass-fibre lamination.
This special surface texture will ensure that the glass-fibre laminate bonds to it permanently and securely," Steindl said.
The glue was either used in an unmodified form or modified by the addition of 5.5% w/w milled (60 mesh) glass-fibre (FiberTek[R], Burnaby, BC, Canada).
Fracture toughness was also significantly improved by reinforcing adhesive bond lines with glass-fibre (Figure 3).
The effects of through-reinforcement and addition of glass-fibre to adhesive bond lines on 5% maximum fracture toughness values of specimens, a reporting parameter for ASTM D5528-13, are shown in Figures 4 and 5, respectively.
Results in Figure 6 show the positive effects of through-reinforcement on load sustained by specimens bonded with an unmodified polyurethane adhesive (Figure 6(a)), and specimens bonded with a polyurethane adhesive reinforced with 5.5% glass-fibre (Figure 6(b)).