biloba extract comprises approximately 24% of flavonoid glycosides (primarily quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) and 6% of terpene lactones (2.8%-3.4% of ginkgolides
A, B, and C and 2.6%-3.2% of bilobalide) (3).
In some oriental countries, including China, Japan, and Korea, GB seeds are regarded as delicious food and tonic medicine, which is a rich source of health-promoting compounds such as flavonoids, ginkgo acid, bilobol, and ginkgolides
as well as carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins, and mineral elements .
Administration of individual EGb761 constituents, namely, ginkgolides
A (GA), B (GB), C (GC), and J (GJ) and 10 [micro]g/ mL bilobalide, increased the levels of BDNF by following a similar pattern .
Ginkgo biloba is a time-honored and venerated Chinese herb with many potent constituents, including flavonol and flavone glycosides, lactone derivatives (ginkgolides
), and bilobalide.
Schimke, "Antioxidative activity of ginkgolides
against superoxide in an aprotic environment," Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol.
The EGb 761 used in our study was standardized to 9.6 mg Ginkgo flavone glycosides and 2.4 mg terpene lactones (Ginkgolides
are diterpenes with a structure of twenty carbon cage molecules that come from the leaves and the roots of an ancient Chinese tree called Ginkgo biloba and belong to the natural specific inhibitors which antagonize the binding to PAF's membrane receptor by a competitive way.
The standardized GBE, EGb761, is pharmacologically prepared containing ginkgo flavonoids (primarily quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) comprising 22-24% of the GBE, 6% terpenoids (3.1% ginkgolides
A, B, C, and J and 2.9% bilobalide), and <5 ppm ginkgolic acid (Figures 5(d), 5(e), and 5(f)).
This might be because the YD contains multibioactive substances [69, 70]; Ginkgolides
can scavenge oxygen free radicals and improve microcirculation and myocardial hypoxia ; Gynostemma has antiplatelet and inhibits thrombosis and blood lipid lowering effect .
With regard to composition, flavonoids--such as lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2--comprise 22-27% of GBE, whereas terpene lactones-including ginkgolides
A, B, C, J, and bilobalide--comprise 5-7% of GBE (Kwak et al., 2012).
A new geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene from Ginkgo biloba, which intermediates the biosynthesis of the key precursor for ginkgolides
. DNA Seq., 15: 153-158
GbE (50:1) contains about 24% flavonoid glycosides, 6% terpenoids (such as the diterpenoids A, B, C, M, and J ginkgolides
, and the sesquiterpene bilobalide), 7% proanthocyanidins, and organic acids of low molecular weight (8).