ghrelin

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ghrel·in

(grel'in),
A naturally occurring 28-amino acid gut-brain growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP) that is expressed mainly in the stomach and possibly in the hypothalamus. Fasting and hypoglycemia increase ghrelin levels and circulating ghrelin levels are decreased in chronic obesity, following acute caloric intake and in states of positive energy balance. Acute administration of ghrelin to humans induces a feeling of hunger. Ghrelin binds to ghrelin-receptors in the anterior pituitary and possibly in the mediobasal and mediolateral hypothalamus to stimulate growth hormone release and to regulate energy homeostasis. Serum levels of ghrelin are measurably higher in patients who have lost weight through dietary measures.
[growth hormone release + -in]

ghrelin

(grĕl′ən)
n.
A hormone that is secreted by cells in the stomach and promotes hunger before an expected meal, decreases in amount after eating, and promotes secretion of growth hormone.

ghrel·in

(grel'in)
A peptide hormone secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Acts as a growth hormone secretagogue and as an orexigenic agent mediated by the hypothalamic hormones neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti growth-related peptide (AGRP).
[growth hormone release + -in]

ghrelin

A 28-amino acid peptide hormone that stimulates release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary and has significant effects on appetite and energy balance. The main source of ghrelin is the epithelial cells of the fundus of the empty stomach. Recent studies have shown that, in mice, the hormone also interacts with the hippocampus and appears to improve memory and cognitive function.

Ghrelin

A recently discovered peptide hormone secreted by cells in the lining of the stomach. Ghrelin is important in appetite regulation and maintaining the body's energy balance.
Mentioned in: Obesity
References in periodicals archive ?
Ghrelin exerts analgesic effects through modulation of IL-10 and TGF-b Levels in a rat model of inflammatory pain.
Ghrelin inhibits post-operative adhesions via blockage of the TGF-b signaling pathway.
Immunohistochemical localization of ghrelin in the liver and pancreas of adult Wanxi white goose.
Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and ontogenetic expression of ghrelin and regulation of expression by fasting and refeeding in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).
Ghrelin: a multifunctional hormone in non-mammalian vertebrates.
Chicken ghrelin: purification, cDNA cloning, and biological activity.
Cummings' new research points to a related problem: Calorie for calorie, fat is less effective than other nutrients at suppressing ghrelin's hunger call.
For example, the researchers observed in 2003 that prebreakfast, or background, ghrelin concentrations rise as most people lose weight--as if the body is attempting to regain the pounds.
When it comes to sugars, different types can have different effects on ghrelin. For example, Peter J.
The meals silenced participants' ghrelin signals only about half as much on the days when the accompanying drinks had been sweetened with fructose compared with the days of glucose drinks, Havel's group reported in the June 2004 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCE&M).
One might expect that people with the highest background ghrelin concentrations in their blood would be the hungriest, eat the most, and end up fattest.