A hypothesis on the mechanism of inhibition in anticancer activity indicates that SQ reduces the activity of the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme by limiting the steps towards normal cholesterol synthesis and intermediate stages where geranyl
diphosphate (GDP) and farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) produce important substrates for the biosynthesis of ubiquinones and for the prenylation (farnesylation) of proteins.
In contrast, [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-myrcene, limonene, bornyl acetate, geranyl
acetate, and [beta]-caryophyllene were inactive against Y.
(1998) Ozonolysis at Vegetation Surfaces: A Source of Acetone, 4-Oxopentanal, 6-Methyl-5-Hepten-2-One, and Geranyl
Acetone in the Troposphere, Atmospheric Environment, 32, 1893-1902.
In the other study, borneol, [alpha]-terpinene, linolool, and geranyl
proprionate were found as major constituents in the L.
In contrast, geranyl
pyrophosphate synthase (GPPS) and 3hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) showed minor down regulation in response to both As treatments (Figure 5).
hydrocarbons (e.g., pinene, limonene, bisabolene), alcohols (e.g., linalol, santalol), acids (e.g., benzoic acid, geranic acid), aldehydes (e.g., citral), cyclic aldehydes (e.g., cuminal), ketones (e.g., camphor), lactones bergaptene), phenols (e.g., eugenol), phenolic ethers (e.g., anethole), oxides (e.g., 1,8 cineole) and esters (e.g., geranyl
acetate) (Deans, 1992).
The recent generation of X-ray crystal structures of the human FPP synthase enzyme, cocrystallized with RIS or ZOL , revealed that N-BPs bind the geranyl
diphosphate (GPP) binding site of the enzyme, with stabilizing interactions occurring between the nitrogen moiety of the N-BP and a conserved threonine and lysine residue in the enzyme.
The reduction in mevalonate pathway intermediates by statins also prevent the synthesis of isoprenoid intermediates, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranyl geranyl
Twelve compounds have been purified and identified to be beta-sitosterol (1), tyrosol (2), trans-hydroxycinnamic acid (3), geranyl
beta-glucopyranoside (4), neryl beta-glucopyranoside (5), hexyl beta-glucopyranoside (6), gallic acid (7), (-) -epigallocatechin gallate (8), rhodiolgin (9), isolariciresinol-9-O-beta-glucopyranoside (10), rhodiooctanoside (11), and sacranoside B (12).
The major component was menthol (40.50%), other components present in appreciable contents were: menthone (5.0%), menthyl acetate (4.50%), menthofuran (4.20%), neomenthol (3.80%), linalyl acetate (3.50%), oxyde de piperitone (3.20%), piperitone (3.10%), isomenthone(2.50%), 1,8-cineole (2.40%), linalool (2.0%), limonene (1.80%), geraniol (1.70%), myrcene (1.60%), geranyl
acetate (1.50%) and trans-Sabinene hydrate (1.40%).
The transient intermediate (10) undergoes an El elimination to generate a new carbon-carbon double bond and form geranyl
pyrophosphate (11) (ref.