genetic engineering

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ge·net·ic en·gi·neer·ing

internal manipulation of basic genetic material of an organism to modify biologic heredity or to produce peptides of high purity, such as hormones or antigens.

genetic engineering

n.
Scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. It involves the production and use of recombinant DNA and has been employed to create bacteria that synthesize insulin and other human proteins.

genetic engineer n.

biotechnology

Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

Biotech tools
Recombinant DNA, monoclonal antibody and bioprocessing techniques, cell fusion.
 
Biotech products
Antibiotics, insulin, interferons, recombinant DNA, and techniques (e.g., waste recycling).
 
Ancient forms of biotechnology
Production of bread, cheese, wine, beer.

genetic engineering

Biological engineering, genetic modification, recombinant DNA technology Molecular biology The manipulation of a living genome by introducing or eliminating specific genes through recombinant DNA techniques, which may result in a new capability–eg production of different substances or new functions, gene repair or replacement

genetic engineering

The deliberate alteration, for practical purposes, of the GENOME of a cell so as to change its hereditable characteristics. This is done mainly by recombinant DNA techniques using gene copies obtained by the POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. Enzymes (restriction enzymes) are used to cut the nucleic acid molecule at determinable positions and short lengths of DNA from another organism are inserted. The second cell will now contain genes for the property or characteristic borrowed from the first cell. The genes might, for instance, code for the production of a useful protein such as insulin or some food material. Bacteria, yeasts and other organisms are used as the hosts for the new gene sequences and these organisms can be cloned in enormous numbers to produce the desired effects, or substances, for which the new genes code. Well over 100 valuable drugs and vaccines have been produced in this way, including human insulin, growth hormone, interferons, hepatitis vaccine, digoxin monoclonal antibody, orthoclonal OK3, somatotropin, TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR (TPA), erythropoietin, granulocyte MACROPHAGE colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and Factor VIII. Cloned copies of the genes for many genetic diseases have been made available for use as probes for the identification of the disease by AMNIOCENTESIS, before birth. The possibility also arises of correcting genetic defects in early embryos. Genetic engineering offers almost unlimited possibilities for the advancement of medicine, science and technology, but strict control is also necessary if the many manifest dangers are to be avoided.

genetic engineering

a broad term for all those processes that result in the directed modification of the genetic complement of an organism. The term applies to a wide range of genetical techniques, for example, plant and animal breeding to improve physiological performance by SELECTION, and GENE CLONING techniques for the deliberate transfer of genetic material from one organism to another where it is not normally found. For example, a gene can be removed from human cells and transferred to microbial cells (using BACTERIOPHAGE or PLASMID vectors) where the ‘foreign’ gene can direct the formation of useful products. There are many applications of genetic engineering in industry, agriculture and medicine. In industry a range of recombinant proteins has been obtained, for example INSULIN, INTERFERON and HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. Genetic engineering is also being used in the development of VACCINES, novel plant varieties etc. See also TRANSGENESIS, PROTEIN ENGINEERING.

Genetic engineering

The manipulation of genetic material to produce specific results in an organism.
Mentioned in: Gene Therapy
References in periodicals archive ?
Buy Single User License of Global (United States, European Union and China) Genetically Modified Seeds Market Research Report 2019-2025 @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/buy-now?format=1&report=2092782
The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of persuasive communication on Florida consumers' attitudes toward genetically modified food.
* Genetically modified crops can be made into food which can resist diseases and is benefit to health using relevant technologies, which can avoid the waste caused by instability due to the application of grafting and hybridization.
Any cereal may include genetically modified ingredients like corn, soy, or sugar made from genetically engineered crops.
1) US FDA - Labeling requirements for prepackaged food containing ingredients of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) (http://www.fda.gov.tw/tc/includes/GetFile.ashx?mID=19&id=38137&chk=383015df-ca6a-4520-8c61-3a2cb15b88c1)
Genetically modified organisms are foods grown from seeds engineered in labs.
When the flower pollen becomes genetically modified or sterile, the bees will potentially go malnourished and die of illness due to the lack of nutrients and the interruption of the digestive capacity of what they feed on through the summer and over the winter hibernation process.
The objective is to prepare summary reports of the information contained in the dossiers regarding the genetically modified production organism such as plant or basidiomycete or microbial sources.
On this date, people in over 300 cities around the world will be protesting against genetically modified foods and large multinationals seeking to promote the control of humanity through the control of food, led by MONSANTO, organizing marches and actions of information and awareness against food control and the destruction of the planet`s biodiversity.
At the site consumers can research and verify the safety, prevalence and benefits of genetically modified food ingredients by visiting online information posted by credible and independent sources, including governmental food safety agencies, medical and health organizations, news organizations, food safety experts and non-governmental agencies, say GMA officials.
The march began at the Wayne Morse Free Speech Plaza downtown and ended a few blocks south, at First Christian Church, where a panel of local activists discussed the issues surrounding genetically modified food and what communities can do to stop its spread.
Over the past 7 years Romania has lost over EUR 1 billion by not cultivating genetically modified soybean and instead importing it for fodder, said Valeriu Steriu, president of the presidential commission for public and agriculture development policies this Thursday, according to Agerpres news agency.He said Romania should convince Brussels to be allowed to cultivate genetically modified soybean, "not necessarily for human use, but for fodder and other uses." He added that each year Romania imports genetically modified soybeans worth EUR 150 million when it could produce soybean worth more than EUR 200 million and export the surplus.At the beginning of the year Romania was the 9th country to sign the "Danube soya declaration" out of 17 other countries located along the Danube.

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