genetic marker

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Related to Genetic markers: polymorphism

genetic

 [jĕ-net´ik]
1. pertaining to reproduction or to birth or origin.
2. inherited.
genetic code the arrangement of nucleotides in the polynucleotide chain of a chromosome; it governs the transmission of genetic information to proteins, i.e., determines the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain making up each protein synthesized by the cell. Genetic information is coded in DNA by means of four bases: two purines (adenine and guanine) and two pyrimidines (thymine and cystosine). Each adjacent sequence of three bases (a codon) determines the insertion of a specific amino acid. In RNA, uracil replaces thymine.
genetic map
1. the location of mutations along the length of a chromosome, as determined by recombination experiments. The unit of length is the centimorgan (cM), one crossover per meiosis.
2. the sequence of base pairs along the DNA of a chromosome, a technique being applied to humans.
A gene map of Chromosome 18. From Copstead, 1996.
genetic marker a gene having alleles that are all expressed in the phenotype, that is, they are codominant, and which can be used to study inheritance. The various blood group systems and serum or red blood cell proteins easily detected by electrophoresis or immunodiffusion are commonly used markers.

ge·net·ic de·ter·mi·nant

any antigenic determinant or identifying characteristic, particularly those of allotypes.
Synonym(s): genetic marker

genetic marker

n.
A gene, DNA sequence, or gene product whose inheritance can be traced through a pedigree or phylogeny. Genetic markers are used in paternity testing, studies of evolution, and evaluating genetic contributions to phenotypes including disease. Genetic markers associated with certain diseases can often be detected in the blood serum, where their presence is used to determine whether a person is at high risk for developing a disease.

ge·net·ic de·ter·mi·nant

(jĕ-net'ik dĕ-tĕr'mi-nănt)
Any antigenic determinant or identifying characteristic, particularly those of allotypes.

genetic marker

A gene or DNA sequence that indicates the presence of a disease or a probable risk of developing it.

genetic marker

  1. a phenotypic character that can be assigned to a GENE to mark its position on the GENOME.
  2. a characteristic feature of the GENOTYPE, such as a NUCLEOTIDE signature, gene or HETEROCHROMATIC region, that can be used to track a particular individual, TISSUE, CELL, NUCLEUS, CHROMOSOME, PLASMID or gene. Genetic markers are used, for example, to detect the presence of cloning VECTORS in GENETIC ENGINEERING and to monitor ORGANISMS released into the environment. See RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM.
References in periodicals archive ?
"We are finding there is a lot more overlap between what some of these genetic markers do and what was previously thought," he said.
Professor Allan Downie, Emeritus Fellow at the John Innes Centre and coordinator of the Nornex consortium which carried out the research, said: "The identification of genetic markers for trees with low susceptibility to ash dieback is a large first step, one of many that will be needed in the fight to help ash trees survive this disease epidemic." He added it was "astonishing" the science had come so far in such a short time.
Using an analysis method called Linkage-order Gene Sets, or LoGS, the team examined how the five immune-related pathways connected to the genetic markers identified by previous family studies of autism.
Desirable genetic markers should meet the following criteria: 1) high level of genetic polymorphism; 2) co-dominance (so that heterozygotes can be distinguished from homozygotes); 3) clear distinct allele features (so that different alleles can be identified easily); 4) even distribution on the entire genome; 5) neutral selection (without pleiotropic effect); 6) easy detection (so that the whole process can be automated); 7) low cost of marker development and genotyping (Inexpensive to develop and apply); 8) high reproducibility (High robust and repeatable across different tissue types and different laboratories); and 9) unaffected by environmental and developmental variation [8].
Regarding sensitivity and specificity for predicting CHD, of the 38 genetic markers identified, only the one located at chromosome position 9p21 was graded as highly credible and statistically significant.
Known as DNA or SNP chips, these devices probe genetic markers called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs.
Six out of 10 women without other genetic markers of ovarian cancer risk had the KRAS variant.
They have developed a relatively fast and inexpensive way to identify genetic markers not only in grapes, but also in other crops, by using modern sequencing approaches.
Understanding towards genetic diversity and population structure of malaria parasites are the crucial steps to make an effective anti-malarial control measure, and for such studies identification of high diversity resolving genetic markers are equally essential.
While genetic markers can be used to measure the likelihood of getting cancer, heart disease is too complicated a disease for that to happen yet, said Nina Paynter of Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston.
Dr Stephen Harrison, founder of Thoroughbred Genetics Ltd, a Canterburybased firm which specialises in the genetic assessment of racehorses, said: "There is currently research going on into genetic markers for conditions such as bleeding, tying up [a muscle condition] and roaring [a breathing problem]."
Discovery of genetic markers in walleye DNA allowed a recent assessment of stocking the Eleven Point River, a clear, spring-fed stream running from southern Missouri into northern Arkansas.* This was apparently the first such study done on a southern river.