Details are not shown for TF gene families
with less than four unigenes.
Based on sequence similarity, the waxy gene was analyzed for the presence or absence of conserved domains and orthologous and paralogous gene families
. This study was conducted using three different types of bioinformatics tools; NCBI Conserved Domains Database (NCBI-CDD) (Marchler et al., 2011), Protein families database (Pfam) (Aranda et al., 2010) and InterProScan (Zdobbnov and Apweiler, 2001).
Trask, "Extreme variability among mammalian V1R gene families
," Genome Research, vol.
With the increasing availability of genomic data, it became clear that numerous gene families
have diverged in function through series of duplications, including many lineage-specific expansions (or gene copy-number variations (CNVs) at the population level) identified in each of the genomes sequenced [1-8].
Chapters address yeast cell architecture and functions, metabolism, molecular techniques, genetic structures and functions, gene families
involved in cellular dynamics, yeast growth and the yeast cell cycle, transport, gene expression, molecular signaling cascades and gene regulation, organellar biogenesis and function, genome and postgenomic projects, and disease genes in yeast.
According to Life Technologies, the kit can detect more than 12 pathogenic bacteria and 15 resistance gene families
in a single assay and up to 12 samples can be tested per sequencing run.
Researchers in a wide range of biological sciences seize the moment by discussing such topics as understanding gene duplication through biochemistry and population genetics, myths and realities of gene duplication, statistical methods for detecting the functional divergence of gene families
, the energy and material cost of gene duplication, evolutionary and functional aspects of genetic redundancy, gene and genome duplication in plants, and whole-genome duplications and the radiation of vertebrates.
In addition, researchers report in the Science paper that they have discovered about 1,000 genes that are duplicated in many people, including 44 gene families
whose extra copies were previously unknown.
These predicted topologies differ markedly from the well-conserved pattern of 12 transmembrane helices characteristic of the SNF gene family, although they are consistent with the topologies reported among the eight amino acid transporter gene families
expressed across animal phyla (6-15 transmembrane helices: Saier, 2000).
Reptile and platypus venom proteins "have been coopted from the same gene families
." The scientists also deduced from genomic data that the platypus, despite being an egg-layer, shares milk protein genes with all other mammals.
"Now that we have definitive evidence from several perspectives that integrity of the neuroligin-neurexin axis is critical for normal development, we must launch into a candidate gene-resequencing effort to fully describe mutations in the other members of these gene families
in autism spectrum disorders," Dr.
Brandhorst, Jack Chen, and Karl Bergeron are among 200 researchers who have learned that many of the gene families
in the sea urchin, a simple spiny marine animal, are the same as these in the human and other complex vertebrates.