Hormones can remain binary in their impact (producing feminizing or masculinizing effects), and at the same time gender identities are described as potentially fluid and variable.
(31) When viewing hormones as semiotic agents in the production of gender identity, we do not suggest that individual gender identities can be inauthentic or imposed by individual outsiders.
In the essentialist perspective, hormones and their receptors are direct agents of presocial gender identities. Practitioners view hormones as not just one component in the construction of biological sex expression (as female or male), but also the primary agent in producing gender identity.
At the same time, lingering reparative therapy models that would have the same trans clients realign their gender identities (rather than their sexed bodies) with dominant gender ideologies would only be strengthened by acknowledging the socially malleable constitution of gendered selves.
(19) At the same time, peers, family members, and juvenile justice professionals often inaccurately make assumptions about youths' gender identities and sexual orientations based on social norms.
(22) These researchers contacted LGB-and-gender-non-conforming-youth-serving agencies and conducted focus groups or interviews with youths who have disclosed being LGB or having non-conforming gender identities. (23) However, these findings fail to document the experiences of youths who choose to keep their sexual orientations or non-conforming gender identities hidden.
Previously, juvenile justice systems did not collect or analyze data about the sexual orientations or gender identities of individual youths, making statistical disaggregation along these two variables impossible.
If changes in gender identities were identified with the emergence of a new working class in the fifties, gender also provided a language with which to register the discomfort provoked by this transformation.
The article first considers changes in femininity with relationship to work and sexuality, then examines changing reflections upon masculinity and family life and concludes with a consideration of the cultural representation of changes in gender identities in the fifties.
Though they did not completely displace established understandings of gender and class within the working classes, the experience of war and unemployment in the first half of the twentieth-century were powerful catalysts in the confusion of gender identities. The dilution of male labour by female labour during the First World War left the identification between skilled work and masculinity less sure.
The law, House Bill 2, bars transgender individuals from using restrooms appropriate for their gender identities
, excludes sexual orientation and gender identity from state anti-discrimination protections, and prohibits municipalities from extending those protections to LGBT citizens.
Through Student Pride USA I've met student activists of all colors, nationalities, ages, gender identities
, and sexual orientations.