That Yarhouse does not even acknowledge this work, yet does choose to cite uncritically the divisive and controversial work of Paul McHugh, is troubling, and also puzzling, given that he acknowledges throughout the book that a rigid adherence to stereotypical expressions of femininity and masculinity is a source of great pain for the gender dysphoric
person, something that Christians need to recognize and relinquish.
Psychological outcomes and reproductive issues among gender dysphoric
In 1980, Transsexualism was listed as a diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Third Edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) "gender dysphoric
individuals who demonstrated at least two years of continuous interest in transforming the sex of their bodies and their social gender status" (Meyer et al., 2001).
These are: focus on pathology on nonconformity to assigned birth sex in disregard to the definition of mental disorder, issue of clarity on gender dysphoria, issues related to gender-conversion therapies, the misleading title of \'gender identity disorder,\' maligning terminologies, false positive diagnosis of those who are no longer gender dysphoric
, its placement in the class of sexual disorders etc.3 Proposed categories so far are: Gender Dysphoria in Children, Gender Dysphoria in Adolescents or Adults and Unspecified Gender Dysphoria.4 Coming back to the issue, it has been suggested that Gender Dysphoria appears to be a consequence of sex atypical cerebral differentiation.
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual defines transgender people as living with a mental condition known as gender dysphoric
, or gender identity, disorder.
TransAustralia (2009) explains that people do not choose to be gender dysphoric
, they are born with it.
More specifically, he cited the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association's Standards of Care: The Hormonal and Surgical Sex Reassignment of Gender Dysphoric
Persons (Benjamin Standards), which advised patients to live full-time in the social role of the sex they identified with for at least one year.
Bowman and Goldberg (2006) cite multiple reasons for requesting a hysterectomy and salpingo-oophrectomy, including reduction of gender identity dysphoria related to presence of the female reproductive structures, treatment of pre-existing gynecological conditions, prevention of menses in clients who are unable to tolerate testosterone treatment, or removal of the need for Pap examinations in clients so severely gender dysphoric
that vaginal examinations are intolerable.
There was nothing wrong with homosexual people, and there's nothing wrong now with gender dysphoric
The aim of this article is to help counselors become more transgender literate by (a) defining gender dysphoric
disorder and related terms; (b) discussing the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of gender dysphoria; (c) highlighting career realities faced by transgender employees; (d) touching upon legal issues pertaining to transgender workers; and (e) offering a few suggestions to counselors working with transgender clients.
This last category deserves some special attention because it is comprised of the male-bodied people Harry Benjamin identified as "true" transsexuals of the "high intensity" type for whom transition is both "urgently requested" and "indicated." Relative to the rest of my transgender practice and experience this has been a small enough component to put in perspective the academic literature that claims, as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manualof Mental Disorders has repeatedly done, a ratio of 1:30,000 morphological males and 1:100,000 morphological females in the American population who are sufficiently gender dysphoric
to seek what is still called sex reassignment surgery (SRS).
Ethical issues in the mental health treatment of gender dysphoric