For example, in one report, a reported sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 78% were found, only when three or more of six diagnostic tests (distraction provocation test, Gaenslen's test
, thigh thrust provocation test, sacral thrust test and compression provocation test) were positive, while other studies have not supported these findings6,7.
The FABER test of the right hip, straight leg raise test and Gaenslen's test
Presence or absence of Sacroiliac joint pain was assessed using physical examination findings including FABER/Patrick's test, Gaenslen's test
, and the Fortin finger test (tenderness over area medial and inferior to posterior superior iliac spine), diagnostic assessment for the particular visit, and the procedure performed.
The sacroiliac joints were examined using Patrick's FABER (Flexion, ABduction, and External Rotation) test, anterior posterior pelvic pressure over the anterior superior iliac spine, lateral pelvic compression, direct pressure over the sacroiliac joints and Gaenslen's test
Only 3 examination maneuvers mildly reproduced the patient's LBP: Gaenslen's test
on the right, femoral nerve stretch on the right, and active lumbar extension.
To elicit pain at the SI joints, Flexion-Abduction-External Rotation (FABER) test, Distraction test and Gaenslen's test
were carried out.
Positive findings on at least one of the following three provocation tests for SIJ pain: (i) Gaenslen's test
in which the hip joint is flexed maximally on one side, and the opposite hip joint is extended, stressing both sacroiliac joints simultaneously), (12) (ii) Patrick's test [flexion, abduction external rotation (FABERE) test], (13) (iii) Newton's test (thigh hyperflexion test), (14) a negative response to Kemp's test, (15) one of the pain provocation tests for sciatica (Patient's trunk rotates obliquely downward in the affected lumbosacral area.
Another is Gaenslen's test
: While the supine patient holds one knee and hip flexed into the abdomen, the other leg hangs over the edge of the examining table as the physician presses down on it to hyperextend the hip and produce pain in the SI joint.
Posterior shear test (8), Gaenslen's test
(8) and Yeoman's tests (8) were non-provocative.
(45) The flexibility of the psoas major muscle can be further assessed with orthopaedic testing using the Thomas test, Yeoman's test or Gaenslen's test
. (40,43,44) The Thomas test is traditionally thought to help differentiate tight hip flexors (including primarily psoas major) from tight quadriceps femoris muscles.
Orthopedic examination including Gaenslen's test
, Yeoman's test, Faber-Patrick test and thigh thrust test was negative.
The Gaenslen's test
had results of 71%12 and 51.5% (on average) (6) in two different studies.