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A gene on chromosome 1p31.2 that is upregulated in response to stressful growth-arrest conditions and exposure to DNA-damaging agents. The encoded protein activates the p38/JNK pathway via MTK1/MEKK4 kinase.
[24.] Kastan MB, Zhan Q, el-Deiry WS, Carrier F Jacks T, Walsh WV, et al, A mammalian cell cycle checkpoint pathway utilizing p53 and GADD45 is defective in ataxia-telangiectasia, Cell 1992; 71: 587-97, [CrossRef]
In a variety of organisms, tissues, and cell types, FOXO3a increases mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of TFAM , but is more known for increasing expression of antioxidant and repair proteins, including SOD2 [287, 330, 331], catalase [287, 330, 332, 333], glutathione S-transferase (GST) , thioredoxins [287,323], Prx3 [287, 334], Prx5 , and metallothioneins I and II , as well as UCP2 [287, 322] and the DNA repair enzyme growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 (GADD45) [322, 324, 335, 336].
PCNA has been reported to participate in the regulation of apoptosis, either by suppressing antiapoptotic proteins, including the Gadd45 family (Gadd45, Myd118, and CR6) in somatic cells, or by promoting proapoptotic proteins, such as ING1 [45-47].