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The found genes related to resistance are ADRB2, 79C/G, BDKBR2, CHRM2, EpoR, HBB, HIF-1 [alpha], GYS1, NOS3, NRF2, PPAR5, VEGF; the ones related to strength, muscle mass and power are ace, ACTN3, AMPD1, CK-MM, IGF1.
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to determine glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), alanine aminotransferase 2 (ALT2), MCT4, muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1), and liver-type glycogen phosphorylase (PGYL) mRNA expression levels.
The mRNA levels of GYS1 (the main GYS isoform expressed in the testicles) were significantly decreased by 20% in the testicles of T2DM rats (0.80 [+ or -] 0.01-fold variation) when compared to rats of the control group, while its protein levels were not significantly altered (Figures 4(a) and 4(b)).
T2DM animals present several conditions that favor glycogenesis such as (1) elevated levels of insulin, which stimulate glycogen synthesis through inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) that is known to maintain GYS1 in an activated form; (2) hyperglycaemia, which increases the blood-to-testicles glucose availability, exerting an allosteric activation on GYS1 via glucose-6-phosphate (accelerating glycogen synthesis) [55, 56]; (3) increased testicular levels of UDP-glucose, an active intermediate in the synthesis of glycogen [25].
cinnamon extract; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; GLUT, glucose transporter; GSK3B, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; GYS1, glycogen synthase 1; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IGFR, insulin-like growth factor receptor; INS, insulin; INSR, insulin receptor; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; LEP, leptin; LEPR, leptin receptor; PIK3CB, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic, beta; PIK3R1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1; RPL32, ribosomal protein L32; SHC1, Src homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1; SOS1, Son of sevenless 1; TTP, tristetraprolin; ZFP36, zinc finger protein 36.