Under physiological conditions, the luminal domains of IRE1[alpha] are bound to the ER molecular chaperone GRP78
, which keeps it inactive.
RT-PCR was performed to validate the expression pattern of selected genes (GRP78
, CHOP, and ATF4) using SYBR Premix EX Taq II.
Min, "Significance of functional GRP78
polymorphisms in predicting the onset of type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Chinese population," Neurological Research, vol.
was significantly elevated in both low and high intensity acute aerobic exercise training in rat model and adolescents with type 2 diabetic patients [92, 93].
We isolated mRNA from the hypothalamus of the LFD- and HFD-fed mice and performed quantitative PCR analysis to analyze for ER stress responsive markers such as Grp78
, Chop, spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp-1s), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), and ER DnaJ homolog 4 (Erdj4).
, Grp94, and Grp170 interact with [alpha]1-antitrypsin mutants that are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum," American Journal of Physiology Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol.
is a marker of intracellular and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS).
In the mid 1980's, GRP78
was found to be identical to immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP).
The final functional group is related to protein chemistry and is composed of proteins with roles in protein catabolism [proteosome subunit alpha type-1 (PSA1)], complex assembly [glucose regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78
)], formation of secondary structure [T-complex protein 1 subunit (TCP) epsilon and gamma], and synthesis [eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (Q5RKG9)].
After washing 4 times in Trisbuffered saline (10 mM Tris-HCl and 150 mM NaCl) containing 1% (v/v) Tween 20, the membranes were incubated with a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated primary antibody against rat microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC-3) or glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78
, Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology, Jiangsu, China) for 1 h at room temperature.
Scientists at the Virginia Commonwealth University have identi-fied a protein in cells - GRP78
- that if turned off harms tumours, prevents viruses from infecting and kills antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
"Our research has been around a protein called GRP78
, which belongs to a family of proteins called 'chaperones'," said Prof.