Another gene identified in this group, GRIN2B
, encodes a subunit of a receptor that has roles in resilience of neurons and memory.
This view has been corroborated by a number of studies that found GRIN2B to be implicated in phenotypes associated with rewards-related and impulsive behaviour such as smoking initiation (Vinik et al, 2009), alcoholism (Wernicke et al, 2003), pathological gambling (Lee et al, 2009), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD [Arnold et al, 2009]).
Similarly, a study conducted by Ness, Arning, Stuttgen, Epplen & Beste (2011) found that variations in GRIN2B (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit) gene may contribute towards risky decision-making with respect to NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) mechanisms.
In the light of the nature-nurture debate, it would appear that GRIN2B may play a significant role in the process of reward-seeking behaviour which is also involved in the process of risky decision making.
Association of DRD3 and GRIN2B with impulse control and related behaviours in Parkinson's disease.
Table 3 Potential Pharmacogenetic Targets Detected in Human Postmortem Brain Studies in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects and Animal Studies Potential Altered Genes (Reference) Medication Targets Human Postmortem Studies Animal Studies Acamproate ([up arrow]) NMDA subunit ([down arrow]) GRIN1 with genes GRIN2B
and GRIN2D chronic ethanol use in in hippocampus (Enoch et dorsolateral prefrontal al.
1 ionotropic kainate 5 GRIN2B
Glutamate receptor, -2.
Six loci (DAPK, HOXA1, CRABP1, TWIST1, GRIN2B
, and TIMP3) showed statistically higher methylation levels in adult samples than in pediatric samples (all values, P < .
Among them, GO:0004888 dominantly contains 33 transcripts encoding signal receptors, and these receptors could be further classified into several subgroups: OXTR, LOC431251 and SSTR3 belong to reproductive hormone receptors; CHRM2, ADRA2B, P2RX4, P2RY2, EDNRB2, GABRB2, GABRG2, LOC428961 and NPFFR2 function as receptors mediating neurotransmitters or neuropeptide; GRIN2B
and GRIN3A could modulate the efficiency of synaptic transmission; NTRK1 and NTRK2 belong to the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, and are involved with neurotrophin (GO:0005030--neurotrophin receptor activity; and GO:0043121--neurotrophin binding) (Table 5).
CXCL12, C5 Tachycardia Imipramine GRIN2B
, ADORA3, KCNH7, CHRNA7, KCNG2, KCNQ1, CHRNA5, ADORA1, CASQ2, ADRA1B, ADRB3, ADRA1D Kidney failure Imipramine EPO, ALB, EDNRA, FKBP1A, NR3C2, VDR, PPP3CA Glomerular injury EtOH-Fr SREBF1 Cardiac congestive Cardiac failure Imipramine EPO, NOS1.