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GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects.
Bae et al., "GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects," Cell, vol.
In the last decades, several G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), i.e., GPR40, GPR41, GPR43, GPR84, and GPR120, were deorphaned as free fatty acids (FFAs) receptors [1-5].
Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for the anti-inflammatory actions of [omega]-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids including the activation of the plasma membrane G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) , activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR[gamma] , inhibition of the conversion of [omega]-6 fatty acids into eicosanoids , alterations in plasma membrane composition, fluidity and signaling , and induction of the synthesis of proresolution lipid mediators such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins .
Ohkuri et al., "Taste preference for fatty acids is mediated by GPR40 and GPR120," The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
Mayoral et al., "Omega-3 fatty acids reduce obesity-induced tumor progression independent of GPR120 in a mouse model of postmenopausal breast cancer," Oncogene, vol.
Im, "Functions of omega-3 fatty acids and FFA4 (GPR120) in macrophages," European Journal of Pharmacology, 2015.
Postprandial inhibition of gastric ghrelin secretion by long-chain fatty acid through GPR120 in isolated gastric ghrelin cells and mice.
The gene, called GPR120, can also cause fatty liver if it mutates, because in such a case, the organ's ability to burn fat diminishes.
The protein GPR120 is found on the surface of cells in the gut, liver and fat tissue and allows cells to detect and respond to unsaturated fatty acids from the diet, especially the omega-3 fatty acids which are believed to have a beneficial impact on health.
The researchers analyzed the gene for GPR120 in 6,942 obese people and 7,654 controls to test whether differences in the code that carries instructions for making the protein contribute to obesity in humans.
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