Judd, "Niacin stimulates adiponectin secretion through the GPR109A
receptor," American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
Chen et al., "The effect of metformin on the expression of GPR109A
, NF-[kappa]B and IL-1[beta] in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus," Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science, vol.
(encoded by Niacr1) is a receptor for butyrate and niacin in the colon.
, the third receptor found in the colon epithelium and immune cells, is butyrate-specific and closely associated with the anti-inflammatory effect .
Vieira et al., "Metabolite-sensing receptors GPR43 and GPR109A
facilitate dietary fibre-induced gut homeostasis through regulation of the inflammasome," Nature Communications, vol.
G-protein- coupled receptor 109 A (GPR109A
) was identified as receptors for niacin (Wise et al., 2003).
At least three GPCRs have been identified that bind to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by gut bacteria: GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109A
. GPR41 (i.e., FFAR3) and GPR43 (i.e., FFAR2) are both highly expressed on immune cells such as polymorphonuclear cells and macrophages [ 22].
Niacin specifically activates the high affinity G-protein coupled receptors, GPR109a
and b, which then leads to release of a variety of prostaglandins that results in the flush response.
receptor is activated by butyrate, a metabolite produced by fiber-eating bacteria in the colon.
LXXXII: nomenclature and classification of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors (GPR81, GPR109A
, and GPR109B)," Pharmacological Reviews, vol.
A loss of visfatin in mice adipose tissue impaired adipose tissue functions such as inflammation, severe insulin resistance via the synthesis of nicotinamide that is one of the oldest drugs known for its antilipolytic effects , mediated by its interaction with GPR109A
, a receptor on the adipocyte plasma membrane .