These genes and the potential function of the proteins they encode are summarized in Table 5 and include those for glypican 5 (GPC5
) collagen type XXV alpha-1, hyaluronan proteoglycan link protein, calpastatin, and neuronal PAS domain protein 3 ; alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor GRIA3, type 1 IFN-related proteins ADAR and IFNAR2, cell cycle-dependent protein CIT, zinc finger proteins ZFAT and ZFHX4, and guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein STARD13 ; SLC9A9, an [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] exchanger found in endosomes ; NINJ2, TBXAS1, and genes related to the glutamatergic system (GRM3 and GRIK2) ; and FHIT (fragile histidine triad) and GAPVD1 (GTPase-activating protein and VPS9 domains 1) .
Gao, "The microRNA-217 functions as a potential tumor suppressor in gastric cancer by targeting GPC5
," PLoS One, vol.
These include angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4), glycoprotein, which is upregulated in rats with steroid sensitive proteinuria [1, 2], interleukin-13 (IL-13), a cytokine that alters podocyte function and is reported to be upregulated in patients with active INS [3, 4], macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine and counter regulator of the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids [5, 6], glypican-5 gene (GPC5), which encodes a podocyte cell surface proteoglycan whose variants are associated with a podocyte injury and proteinuria , and neural nitric oxide synthetase (nNOS) that plays a role in glomerular hyperpermeability .
The genes and SNPs were Angptl4 SNP rs1044250 (c.797C>T), GPC5 SNP rs16946160 (c.325+102637G>A), IL-13 SNP rs848 (c.*526C>A), MIF rs755622 (c.-270G>C), nNOS rs2682826 (c.*276C>T), MDR1 SNPs rs1128503 (c.1236C>T), rs2032582 (c.2677G>T/A), rs1045642 (c.3435C>T), GLCC11 SNPs rs37972 (c.-1473C>T), and rs37973 (c.-1106A>G) and NR3C1 rs41423247 (c.1184+646G>C).
Primers for GLCC11 (NM138426), rs37972 and rs37973, and GPC5 (NM_004466) rs16946160 were designed using primer3 program (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih .gov/tools/primer-blast/).
Eleven SNPs from eight genes encoding proteins related to kidney function and steroid metabolism (Angptl4, GPC5, MIF, nNOS, IL-13, MDR1, and NR3C1 GLCCll) were analyzed from 100 INS patients.
In GPC5, SNP rs16946160 A allele was more frequent in patients with disease onset less than three years of age than in those with disease onset more than three years of age (16 versus 5%, p = 0.0421).
Various genes like glypican 6 (GPC6) gene, GPC5
gene, and gga-mir-17-92 cluster, Popeye domain-containing protein 1, Opioid-binding protein/cell adhesion molecule-like, Cbfa2t2 were found to be associated with body weight at different growth stages.
Based on a comparison of the two groups, a genetic variation at the location of the GPC5
gene - a genetic sequence called rs3864180 - was found to be associated with a reduced risk of sudden cardiac arrest.
The research team, co-led by scientists at the Mayo Clinic campus in Minnesota, Harvard University, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), and MD Anderson Cancer Center, found that about 30 percent of patients who never smoked and who developed lung cancer had the same uncommon variant, or allele, residing in a gene known as GPC5.
The researchers found in laboratory studies that this allele leads to greatly reduced GPC5 expression, compared to normal lung tissue.
"What's more, our findings suggest GPC5 may be a critical gene in lung cancer development and genetic variations of this gene may significantly contribute to increased risk of lung cancer.