mRNA and protein expression of mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes - Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a coactivator-1a (PGC-1a), energy balance key factor - adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), fatty acids oxidation factor - carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), and glucose oxidation factor - glucose transporter- 4 (GLUT-4) were measured by PCR and Western blotting analysis.
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) is thought to be the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO and is inhibited by malonyl-CoA. Insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) is immunolocalized in rat cardiac muscle under conditions of basal and stimulates glucose uptake, which are achieved by fasting and a combined exercise/insulin stimulus, respectively. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated to contribute to heart disease and its clinical manifestations, and damaged mitochondrial homeostasis might lead to heart failure over time. Consequently, exploration of a new therapeutic strategy to improve mitochondrial function and energy metabolism may have great clinical significance.
Antibodies against GLUT-1 (ab652) and GLUT-4 (ab654) were purchased from LifeSpan BioSciences Inc.
OHC Uptake of 2-NBDG Is Modulated by GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 Antagonists.
In mature adipocytes, glucose transporter type 4 (Glut-4) is highly expressed and responds to insulin to lower blood glucose .
After the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was induced with a medium containing insulin, the cells undergo several rounds of mitosis referred to as mitotic clonal expansion at an early event of differentiation [15,16], A transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-[beta], is required for the mitotic clonal expansion , After mitotic clonal expansion, the preadipocyte cells express the key transcription factor, PPAR[gamma], for adipocyte differentiation, which plays essential roles for inducing the adipocyte specific PPAR-[gamma] target genes such as Glut-4 and fatty acid binding protein , The 3T3-L1 cells gradually increase lipid droplet size and number during the differentiation process.
Liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue were also collected for mRNA gene expressions (GLUT-4, IRS-1, IR, PEPCK, SREBP-1c, FAS, PPAR-a, PPAR-g, TNF-a).
GBE showed up-regulation for hepatic IRS-1 and down-regulation for PEPCK, however, up-regulation for GLUT-4 and PPAR-a found in muscle.
(4,5) Studies have demonstrated isoforms of the SNAP-23, syntaxin-4 and VAMP-2 play important roles in regulating GLUT-4
traffic and vesicle fusion in adipocytes.
Key marker of diabetes in cells is the insulin dependent glucose transporter-4 (Glut-4
) which also responds to exogenous chemicals, and is over expressed up to 5- and 4-fold, by Tinospora cord ifolia and palmatine, respectively.
Sessoes de treinamento de forca com duracao de 30 minutos, 3 vezes na semana, durante 6 semanas, aumentaram o conteudo proteico do GLUT-4
, receptor de insulina, proteina [beta]-quinase, glicogenio sintetase e atividade total da glicogenio sintetase.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extracts of Aegles marmelos and Syzygium cumini on a battery of targets glucose transporter (Glut-4
), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPAR[gamma]) and phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3 kinase) involved in glucose transport.