The reductions ranged from a 41% lower incidence of ischemic stroke on DOAC treatment compared with warfarin treatment, to an 18% reduced rate of hospitalization for a GI bleed
, compared with warfarin-treated patients.
The incidence of upper GI bleed
increases with age and male to female ration is 1:2.
A massive GI bleed
from an obscured source led to the diagnosis.
Signs that may red-flag a GI bleed
include vomiting blood, and tarry or bloody bowel movements.
The patients were initially identified based on International Classification of Diseases Version 9 (ICD 9) codes for upper GI bleeding (e.g., upper GI bleed
, hematemesis, and melena) via the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE) database which is a web-based tool allowing specific clinical data to be extracted by researchers from the electronic medical record .
Analysis of data from 73,863 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study II in 1989 showed that current users of menopausal hormone therapy had a 46% increase in the risk of a major gastrointestinal bleed and a more than twofold increase in the risk of a lower GI bleed
or ischemic colitis, compared with never users, said Dr.
Endoscopy can be diagnostic as well as therapeutic especially in upper GI bleed
; however, in cases with massive GI bleed
visualization becomes challenging and technically difficult.
Others included GI bleed
or liver problems, leukemias, lymphomas, and other cancers.
Research suggests the risk of death increases by a staggering 41% for patients who suffer an upper GI bleed
and are taken to hospital on a public holiday.
M's case, a pharmacodynamic drug-drug interaction among citalopram, aspirin, and clopidogrel caused a GI bleed
. This type of interaction may be overlooked because of the relatively safe drug-drug interaction profile of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
Your risk of GI bleeding is higher if you have a history of ulcers or a previous GI bleed
and/or you are taking an anticoagulant medication such as warfarin (Coumadin) or heparin.
We used the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research's (AHRQ's) Quality Indicator report to identify six conditions for which mortality was considered an important indicator of quality: AMI, hip fracture, stroke, CHF, GI bleed
, and pneumonia (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2002).