GHB


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GHB

GHB

abbr.
gamma-hydroxybutyrate

glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb/Hb A1c)

[glīkō′silā′tid]
a hemoglobin A molecule with a glucose group on the N-terminal valine amino acid unit of the beta chain. The glycosylated hemoglobin concentration represents the average blood glucose level over the previous several weeks. In controlled diabetes mellitus the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin is within the normal range, but in uncontrolled cases the level may be three to four times the normal concentration. Assays of Hb A1c, which normally has a 4-month life span, reveal whether glucose levels have been properly controlled during a period of several weeks before the test. The normal range is 1.8% to 4.0% for children; 2.2% to 4.8% for adults. Also spelled glycosylated haemoglobin.

glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, GHB) test

a blood test used to monitor diabetes treatment. It measures the amount of hemoglobin A1c in the blood and provides an accurate long-term index of the patient's average blood glucose level.

glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, GHB) test

a blood test used to monitor diabetes treatment. It measures the amount of hemoglobin A1c in the blood and provides an accurate long-term index of the patient's average blood glucose level.

anabolic steroid

A drug or hormone-like substance chemically or pharmacologically related to 17-α-alkylated testosterone that promotes muscle growth, which are commonly abused by athletes. Lipid changes by ASs are more marked with oral stanazol (manufactured for horses) than with IV testosterone; it decreases HDL-C (especially HDL2) and increases hepatic TG lipase (HDL) catabolism.
 
Indications
Children, adolescents with delayed puberty, decreased growth, small penis, hypogonadism, testosterone deficiency, osteoporosis management, aplastic anaemia, endometriosis, angioedema, sports performance enhancement (no longer legal), relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression and cognition.

Route
Oral, parenteral.
 
Metabolic effects
Increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgenesis, catabolism and gluticocototitosis.
 
Adverse effects (men)
Breast enlargement (gynecomastia), testicular atrophy, sterility, sperm abnormalities, impotence, prostatic hypertrophy, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, myocardial infarction and fatal arrhythmias, peliosis hepatis, cholestasis, hepatic adenomas, testicular atrophy, peripheral oedema, intracerebral thrombosis.

Adverse effects (women)
Clitoral hypertrophy, beard growth, baldness, deepened voice, decreased breast size.

Adverse effects (men and women)
Aggression and antisocial behavior, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, peliosis hepatis, haemorrhage, jaundice, acne, accelerated bone maturation resulting in short stature, liver tumours (hepatic adenomas and CA) which may regress with abstinence; AS abusers are at an increased risk for HIV transmission, given the common practice of sharing of needles when injecting ASs.

Lab
ASs are detectable to 1 parts per billion 4 days after last use if the hormone is water-soluble, or 14 days after use in lipid-soluble compounds.

FDA status
ASs are schedule-III drugs per the Controlled Substances Act.

GHB

1. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, γ-hydroxy-butyrate. See GABA.
2. Glycosylated hemoglobin, see there.

GHb

Glycosylated hemoglobin, see there.

GHB

Abbreviation for gamma (γ)-hydroxybutyrate.

GHB

Abbreviation for γ-hydroxybutyrate.
References in periodicals archive ?
GHB users also experience negative effects like sweating, loss of consciousness and induced amnesia, he added.
If you have prescription medication you must take on a regular basis, include enough doses in your GHB to last you for your trip home.
GHB counteracts these abnormalities by increasing slow wave sleep, lessening stage 1 sleep, and reducing arousals from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
Hawkins and an accomplice downloaded the recipe for GHB from the internet.
But while GHB is illegal in Britain, GBL is not, although it is outlawed in the US.
Clinically GHB has an extremely narrow therapeutic window, with an oral dose of 25 mg/kg initiating REM sleep (Scrima, Hartman & Johnson 1990), and an oral dose of 60 mg/kg inducing coma (Mack 1993).
The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs found they were increasingly being used as a legal substitute for GHB, particularly as a 'club drug', and can lead to dependence if used regularly, unconsciousness and even death by intoxication.
Nevertheless, GHB is not merely a by-product of GABA metabolism.
Coroner Dr Andrew Reid said: "Mr Timney died as a result of GHB tox-icity.
Doctors initially feared she had choked on the beads, but toxicology tests showed they were coated with the chemical 1,4-butanediol, which converts to GHB in the body.
Both of them are charged with conspiracy to distribute the drugs GHB and GBL and conspiracy to possess cocaine and Ecstasy.
GHB, an odorless, colorless liquid, is particularly dangerous because it is easily added to beverages without the teen noticing it and because the margin between a recreational dose of GHB and a lethal overdose is narrow.