Dr Alan Whone, Principal Investigator on the GDNF
trial, said, "The spatial and relative magnitude of the improvement in the brain scans is beyond anything seen previously in trials of surgically delivered growth-factor treatments for Parkinson's.
They cautioned the results may be the result of the placebo effect and said further research is needed to establish the potential of GDNF
For comparison of serum NGF and GDNF
levels and non-normally distributed variates, Mann-Whitney U test; for comparison of normally distributed variates among the groups, Student t-test was used.
Comella et al., "Randomized, double-blind trial of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF
) in PD," Neurology, vol.
And, the mRNA levels of the GDNF
in the control, diabetic, and the diabetic + SA groups also showed no statistical difference.
Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of BDNF, pro-BDNF, NGF, GDNF
, neurotrophin (NT)-3, and NT-4/5 in TR patients, before and after treatment, comparing with control subjects.
The recent demonstration of the protective function shown by astroglial TNFR1 through the production of GDNF
 in an ALS mouse model and the neurotoxic activity of TNFR2 carried by astrocytes and neurons  mediated by the ASK1/p38MAPK pathway suggests that a future targeted therapeutic strategy should selectively potentiate the TNFR1 response and antagonize TNFR2 or its downstream signaling, in a cell-specific manner.
Studies have revealed that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF
) affects cognitive function, including learning and memory .
The expressions of aromatase, ER[alpha] and ER[beta], AR, GDNF
, GFR[alpha]1, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were analyzed by IHC using the experimental procedure described elsewhere .
signaling pathways within the mammalian spermatogonial stem cell niche.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of SSC elimination on the gene expression of Glial cell line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF
), Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) and Kit Ligand (KITLG), which are the main growth factors regulating SSCs development and secreted by niche cells, primarily Sertoli cells.