G-protein


Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to G-protein: Adenylyl cyclase

G pro·teins

intracellular membrane-associated proteins activated by several (for example, β-adrenergic) receptors; they serve as second messengers or transducers of the receptor-initiated response to intracellular elements such as enzymes to initiate an effect. These proteins have a high affinity for guanine nucleotides and hence are named G proteins.

G-protein

(jē′prō′tēn′, -tē-ĭn)
n.
Any of a class of cell membrane proteins that transmit signals from certain receptors to effector enzymes, enabling the cell to regulate its metabolism in response to hormones and other extracellular stimuli.
References in periodicals archive ?
Among the significantly enriched biological processes, G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway was enriched in human renal cell carcinoma (Liu et al., 2015), and ion transport was impaired in human microscopic colitis (Barmeyer et al., 2012), indicating that these two GO terms might be relevant to immune response.
[AT.sub.1] and adrenergic ([varies]1- and [beta]-) receptors (AR) belong to the G-proteins superfamily that promote, following signalization, an increase of intracellular calcium that culminates with the glycogen breakdown and glucose release.
RGS22, a novel testis-specific regulator of G-protein signaling involved in human and mouse spermiogenesis along with GNA12/13 subunits.
The report provides comprehensive information on the Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 (S1P Receptor 1 or Endothelial Differentiation G-Protein Coupled Receptor 1 or Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Edg-1 or CD363 or S1PR1 or CHEDG1 or EDG1), targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.
Binding partners to GqPCR distinct from PLC-[beta] include novel activators (Ric-8A and tubulin), candidate effectors (RhoGEFs, PI3K, GPCR kinases (GRKs), Btk, and complex regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins), regulators (RGS proteins and GRKs), and scaffold/adaptor proteins (EBP50/NHERF1, CDP/CD81, caveolin-1, and TPR1) [1, 4, 6, 50].
[sup][6],[7] Telmisartan is a long-lasting and nonpeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker that is highly selective to angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR).
Fractalkine is an immune regulatory factor that sends signals via the CX3CR1 receptor, also called G-protein coupled receptor 13 (GPCR13).
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G-protein coupled receptors that contain the binding site for glutamate, and mGlu4, specifically, is localized to presynaptic terminals in a region of the brain called the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc).
[sup][1] It can relax airway smooth muscle cells by activating the adenylyl cyclase via the stimulatory G-protein (G [sub]s ).
The function of the dopamine D1 receptor in the renal proximal tubule depends on the interaction with G-protein receptor kinase 4 (GRK4).
mGluRs are a group of G-protein coupled receptors that initiate signaling cascades upon Glu binding, and consists of at least12 members.
Several groups have also successfully applied homology-based structure modeling approaches of G-Protein couple receptors (GPCRs) to ligand-binding elucidation [22-43].