Majority of functional cyst
occurred in the reproductive age groups.
CA125 is the gold standard tumor marker in the evaluation of pelvic masses, particularly in the ovarian epithelial cancer, elevated in over 90% of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer and 40% of overall cases with advanced intraabdominal malignancies with a cutoff value of 9 more than 35 IU considered as malignant But it has been seen that elevated serum CA125 ( greater than 35IU/ml) could be found in many benign condition such as menstruation, pregnancy, functional cyst
, pelvic infection, and end- 9,10 ometriosis .
If there is no evidence of a dermoid cyst at that time, that cyst can be presumed to have been a functional cyst
, and patients can seek medical attention as needed.
A functional cyst
such as a follicular cyst, corpus luteum cyst, or theca lutein cyst usually has smooth borders and a fluid center.
Normal 14(43.8) 10(31.2) 2 Cystic 01(3.1) 1(3.1) 3 TO mass 01(3.1) -- 4 Functional cyst
7(21.8) -- 5 Benign Ovarian Mass 4(12.5) -- 6 Twisted Ovarian Mass 2(6.2) -- 7 Endometriosis 1(3.1) -- 8 Corpus Luteum Cysts -- 2(6.2) 9 Streak Gonads -- 1(3.1) 10 Pregnancy 1(3.1) -- Unilateral Bilateral Sr.
A total of two hundred and twenty-seven cases of ovarian lesions were encountered of which 127 (55.9%) were functional cysts
and were excluded from the study.
(10,11) Although needle aspiration may lead to definitive resolution in some cases, (12) surgical resection is warranted in many cases as a diagnostic procedure, for the treatment of hyperparathyroidism (in cases of functional cysts
), and because of the rare possibility of parathyroid carcinoma presenting as a cystic neck or mediastinal mass.
Simple and functional cysts
are very common, and they usually resolve after the first trimester .
Ovarian cysts may result from functional cysts
, primary ovarian tumor including ovarian cancer, or metastasis of breast cancer.
(51) Ovarian torsion occurs most commonly in the 1st and 2nd trimesters, attributable to increased ligamentous laxity, rapid uterine growth, and a greater number of functional cysts
present in early pregnancy.
Most of these cysts were considered to be functional cysts
Adnexal masses are commonly physiologic or functional cysts
. Benign masses with complex features can include corpus luteum, mature teratomas, hydrosalpinx, theca lutein cysts, or endometriomas.