frontal plane

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Related to frontal plane: sagittal plane, transverse plane

fron·tal plane

a vertical plane at right angles to a sagittal plane, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions, or any plane parallel to the central coronal plane.
Synonym(s): plana frontalia [TA], coronal plane ☆ , plana coronalia

frontal plane

n. Anatomy
A plane parallel to the long axis of the body and perpendicular to the sagittal plane that separates the body into front and back portions.

frontal plane

any of the vertical planes passing through the body from the head to the feet, perpendicular to the sagittal planes; the plane parallel to the long axis of the body and at right angles to the median sagittal plane, dividing the body into front and back portions. Also called coronal plane. Compare median plane, sagittal plane, transverse plane. See also frontal section.

cor·o·nal plane

(kōr'ŏ-năl plān)
A vertical plane at right angles to a sagittal plane, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions.
Synonym(s): frontal plane.


(plan) [L. planum, flat surface]
1. A flat or relatively smooth surface.
Enlarge picture
2. A flat surface formed by making a cut, imaginary or real, through the body or a part of it. Planes are used as points of reference by which positions of parts of the body are indicated. In the human subject, all planes are based on the body being in an upright anatomical position. See: illustration; anatomical position
3. A certain stage, as in levels of anesthesia.
4. To smooth a surface or rub away.

Addison plane

See: Addison plane

alveolocondylar plane

A plane tangent to the alveolar point with most prominent points on lower aspects of condyles of the occipital bone.

axiolabiolingual plane

A plane that passes through an incisor or canine tooth parallel to the long axis of the tooth and in a labiolingual direction.

axiomesiodistal plane

A plane that passes through a tooth parallel to the axis and in a mesiodistal direction.

Baer's plane

See: Baer's plane

bite plane

A plane formed by the biting surfaces of the teeth.

coccygeal plane

The fourth parallel plane of the pelvis.

coronal plane

A vertical plane at right angles to a sagittal plane. It divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
Synonym: frontal plane

datum plane

An assumed horizontal plane from which craniometric measurements are taken.

Daubenton's plane

See: Daubenton's plane

focal plane

One of two planes through the anterior and posterior principal foci of a dioptric system and perpendicular to the line connecting the two.

Frankfort horizontal plane

See: Frankfort horizontal plane

frontal plane

Coronal plane.

Hodge's plane

See: Hodge, Hugh Lennox

horizontal plane

A transverse plane at right angles to the vertical axis of the body.

inclined planes of the pelvis

Anterior and posterior inclined planes of the pelvic cavity, two unequal sections divided by the sciatic spines. In the larger, anterior section, the lateral walls slope toward the symphysis and arch of the pubes; the posterior walls slope in the direction of the sacrum and coccyx. The anterior inclined planes are the declivities over which rotation of the occiput takes place in the mechanism of normal labor.

inclined plane of a tooth

Any sloping surface of the cusp of a tooth.

intertubercular plane

A horizontal plane passing through the tubercles of the crests of the ilia; lies approx. at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

Listing's plane

See: Listing's plane

median plane

A vertical plane through the trunk and head dividing the body into right and left halves. Synonym: midsagittal plane
See: plane for illus.

midsagittal plane

Median plane.

Morton's plane

See: Morton's plane

occlusal plane

An imaginary plane extending from the incisal edge of the incisors along the tips of the cusps of the posterior teeth to contact the cranium. Although not a true plane, it represents the mean of the curvature of the occlusal surface.

parallel planes of the pelvis

The planes intersecting the axis of the pelvic canal at right angles. The first plane is that of the superior strait; the second that extending from the middle of the sacral vertebra to the level of the subpubic ligament. The third plane is at the level of the spines of the ischia, and the fourth plane is at the outlet.

planes of the pelvis

Imaginary planes touching the same parts of the pelvic canal on both sides.

plane of refraction

A plane passing through a refracted ray of light and drawn perpendicular to the surface at which refraction takes place.

plane of regard

A plane through the fovea of the eye; fixation point.

sagittal plane

A vertical plane through the longitudinal axis of the body or part of the body, dividing it into right and left parts. If it is through the anteroposterior midaxis and divides the body into right and left halves, it is called a median or midsagittal plane.

subcostal plane

A horizontal plane passing through the lowest points of the 10th costal cartilages. It lies approx. at the level of the third lumbar vertebra.

transverse plane

A plane that divides the body into a top and bottom portion.

treatment plane

A plane in the concave joint surface that defines the direction of joint mobilization techniques. The plane is perpendicular to a line drawn from the axis of rotation in the convex joint surface to the center of the concave surface. Joint distraction techniques are applied perpendicular to, and gliding techniques parallel to, the treatment plane.

vertical plane

Any body plane perpendicular to a horizontal plane.

visual plane

A plane passing the visual axis of the eye.

fron·tal plane

(frŏn'tăl plān) [TA]
Vertical plane at right angles to sagittal plane, dividing body into anterior and posterior portions, or any plane parallel to the central coronal plane.


1. pertaining to the face and forehead.
2. denoting a plane passing through the body from side to side. In quadrupeds it is synonymous with a transverse plane while in bipeds it is synonymous with a coronal plane.

frontal abscess
in cattle usually results from infection of a dehorning wound, in sheep from infection by Oestrus ovis.
frontal bone
the paired bones constituting the upper part of the face. See also Table 10.
frontal lobe
the rostral (anterior) portion of the cerebral hemisphere.
frontal nerve block
see supraorbital nerve block.
frontal plane
see dorsal plane.
frontal process
see comb.
frontal sinus
see frontal sinus.
frontal sinusitis
inflammation of the frontal sinus; commonly a sequel to infection of a dehorning wound. Occurs as a chronic disease of unknown origin in bighorn sheep running at range in the wild.
References in periodicals archive ?
The reduced frontal plane base of support presented instability in the MUS but did not require higher ipsilateral external oblique activity for trunk control.
97 Visual axis Total Visual Visual from visual axis from axis from sagittal Eye angle physical axis frontal plane plane AM 93[degrees] 8[degrees] right 0[degrees] 9[degrees] of right eye AL 32[degrees] 6[degrees] right 33[degrees] 20[degrees] of right eye ventral PM 37[degrees] 19[degrees] right 38[degrees] 33[degrees] of right eye dorsal PL 24[degrees] 1[degrees] right 44[degrees] 90[degrees] of right eye dorsal
Instead, hip frontal plane muscles may play a key role in regulating knee load and providing such stability.
This is supported by data suggesting that wearing a lifting belt reduced the frontal plane trunk displacement by 0.
Gentaz & Hatwell (1995) asked blindfolded sighted adults to reproduce the rod orientation after a 5 s unfilled delay in the ipsilateral and contralateral conditions, either in the horizontal plane (like the surface of a table, as did Appelle & Countryman, 1986), or in the frontal plane (like the surface of a blackboard on a wall, as did Lechelt et al.
The first and second cleavage divisions normally correlation to the frontal plane and the plane of bilateral symmetry, generating left- and right-ventral and left- and right-dorsal quadrants.
The analyses of the kinematic data at HS in the frontal plane during participants' comfortable normal walking speed and running (7 km/h) demonstrated that the magnitude of the eversion in the CAI group (-5.
When he is last seen three years later for another episode of cardiac failure, the patient's ECG shows sinus tachycardia, an indeterminate QRS axis in the frontal plane, right bundle branch block, and changes of his old inferior and anterolateral myocardial infarcts (Figure 2).
Sagittal and frontal plane kinematics were calculated, and vector coding methods were used to quantify coordination patterns within the ankle in the sagittal and frontal planes.
Except in the case of an obvious lateral shift, where frontal plane movements are necessary and sagittal plane movements are initially undesirable, sagittal plane movements are always explored first.