Karl Mack von Leibrich lost the Battle of Ulm in 1805, but the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II
lost the war almost a decade before that.
Due to the youth of her son and heir to the throne, Francis II
, Catherine then effectively ruled France, taking on the role of regent again when Francis died and was replaced by his younger brother Charles.
The glorious reign of Francis I was followed by the rule of four ineffective kings (Henry II, Francis II
, Charles IX, and Henry III), the last three more or less subservient to their mother, Catherine de Medicis.
The visit of Pope Francis II
to Cairo, which will take place on 28 and 29 April, remains as scheduled, according to Vatican officials as reported by international media.
There, on the plains of Moravia, Bonaparte's Grande Armee defeated the combined forces of Russia's Tsar Alexander I and the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II
- despite commanding a much smaller force.
Vatican spokesman the Rev Federico Lombardi added: "It will become Francis I after we have a Francis II
The process began when the German territories on the west bank of the Rhine were annexed to France in 1801 under the Treaty of Luneville, which the Hapsburg Emperor, Francis II
, had no choice but to accept after the French victories at Marengo and Hohenlinden the previous year.
The deaths of Mary of Guise and then Francis II
led to the young widow's return to Scotland, relieving Elizabeth of the threat of a French presence in the north.
It began when Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III and ended when Francis II
(Francis I of Austria) abdicated.
Which queen in her own right was also married to Francis II
The small portrait of Mary after her return to Scotland following the death of her first husband King Francis II
of France, was thought to have been painted in the 18th century.
She was married to the dauphin and, when he became king as Francis II
, Mary, at the age of sixteen, was queen of two countries and, notionally, of England also, since her supporters claimed that, as a descendant of Henry VII's elder daughter, she had more right to the throne than Elizabeth.