There were also significant increases in the kidney NO levels (p=0.006), MDA (p<0.001) and fractional sodium excretion (p=0.001) between the control and MAKI group.
In the MAKI model, (induced by administering 50% glycerol to rats) we observed an elevation of MDA, NO levels, the kidney function markers of serum urea and serum creatinine, AST, ALT, CK and serum [K.sup.+] levels and a reduction in the glomerular filtration marker of creatinine clearance and a statistically significant increase in the tubular function marker of fractional sodium excretion. When histopathological sections were investigated, necrosis and cast formation in the tubular lumen were observed.
The sodium retention associated with experimental obesity appears due to an increase in the tubular reabsorption of sodium as indicated by the increased glomerular filtration rate and the decreased fractional sodium excretion
(Lohmeier et al 2012).
On the day of inclusion, median (interquartile range) fractional sodium excretion
, fractional urea nitrogen excretion, blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio, and urine osmolality were 4.2 (1.9-8.5)%, 42.2 (36-51.7)%, 10 (7-14), and 229 (117-277) mosmol/kg of [H.sub.2]O, respectively, for all ATN patients studied.
In the present study a decreased fractional sodium excretion
followed by an enhanced fractional post-proximal sodium reabsorption between the seventh and fourteenth days after CHE administration were observed, despite an increased filtered-sodium load.